Study Guides (238,525)
Canada (115,195)
Psychology (1,813)
PSYB30H3 (142)

PSYB30 Terms for Final Exam

19 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Jane O' Reilly

8 elements of Humanistic Psychology: ­ Humanistic: study of humans, not animals ­ Holistic: human system is greater than sum of its parts ­ Historic: whole person from birth to death ­ Phenomenological: focus on interior, experiential, existential aspects of personality ­ Real life: person in nature, society, culture ­ Positivity: joy, fruitful activities, virtuous actions and attributes ­ Will: choices, decisions, voluntary actions ­ Value: a philosophy of life that describes what is desirable The goal of Humanistic Psychology: ­ To overcome paradox by acknowledging and addressing the ways in which the field of psychology is unique Human mind is fundamentally different and is aware ­ It knows it is being studied and has opinions about itself that affect the way it is studied ­ psychology need to address this awareness ­ self- awareness brings to the fore many uniquely human phenomena (free will, willpower, reflective thinking….) Phenomenology: ­ One’s conscious experience of the world ­ Central insight of humanistic psychology ­ Everything has happened to you in the past; is true about you now; anything might happen in the future can influence you only by affecting your thoughts and feelings at this moment Construal: ­ Your particular experience of the world ­ Form the basis of how you live your life Culture • Way of life of a group, community, or people • Socially transmitted knowledge and tradition • Child-rearing norms • Collective representations • Institutions and ideologies • Idealized portrayals of self and others • Flow of information in local and global systems Existentialism: ­ Begins with the concrete and specific experience of a human being existing at a particular moment in time and space ­ Your experience of existence happens one infinitesimally small moment at a time which is then gone and followed by another ­ What is the nature of existence? ­ How does it feel? ­ What does it mean? Umwelt: biological experience (consists of the sensations you feel by virtue of being a biological organism) Mitwelt: social experience (what you think and feel as social being – emotion and thoughts about other people and the emotions and thoughts directed at you) Eigenwelt: psychology experience (how you feel and think when you try to understand yourself, your own mind, your own existence - introspection) Existential angst: The unpleasant feeling caused by contemplating the meaning of life and how one should spend one’s time Anguish: choice are never perfect – a choice to do good in one way can lead to bad outcomes in other way Forlornness: nothing and no one can guide your choices/ let you off the hook for what you have decided – your choices are yours alone Despair: inability to change crucial aspects of the world Optimistic toughness: existential courage – face your own mortality and the apparent meaninglessness of life, and to seek purpose for your existence Living in bad faith: lead the unexamined life ­ Don’t worry about the meaning of life, do what society/conventions tell you to do, don’t critically examine your own life Problem: 1) Unexamined live: never realizing how fortunate they are to be alive and awarelose their awareness forever without realizing how special it was 2) Even if you manage to ignore troubling existential issues by surrounding yourself with material comforts, you still will not be happy 3) Impossible not to choose; even I don’t choose, I am still choosing Authentic existence ­ Being honest, insightful, morally correct Fully Functioning person Face the world without fear, self-doubt, neurotic defenses ­ ­ More understanding of others and more accepting of others as separate individuals Jean-Paul Sartre ­ Basic element: anguish, forlornness, despair ­ Existential Theory: the only one which gives man dignity and does not reduce him to an object ­ The existential challenge: to do all you can to better the human condition, even in the face of life’s uncertainties ­ Existential analysis: people can regain awareness of their freedom Viktor Frankl - You can become stronger in the face of difficult circumstances Anatta (nonself)-key idea of Buddhism ­ The independent, singular, self you sense inside your mind is merely an illusion Anicca - Nothing lasts forever Buddhism: ­ Having a separate and independent self is harmful leaŁ to isolation ­ Instead of being alone and powerless, you are an integral and interconnected part of the universe and it is part of you ­ Other people are as important as you Nirvana ­ Enlightenment: Caring for others the same as for yourself Ł  universal compassion ­ Lead to a serene, selfless state Expectancy value theory: ­ Behavioral decision are determined by size of reinforcements and beliefs of likely results of behavior (even if reinforcement is attractive, when chances are slim, you won’t pursue it) Psychic determinism: ­ Everything happens has a specific cause that can be identified ­ No free will and random accidents ­ Any contradictions of thoughts and behavior can be resolved ­ Direct idea of unconscious Internal structure: ­ Mind is made of separate parts and conflict with each other ­ Id: irrational and emotional ­ Ego: rational ­ Superego: moral Psychic conflict and compromise: ­ The mind can conflict with itself ­ Compromise formation: what the individual consciously thinks and actually does ­ Ego’s main job: find a middle course btw the competing demands of motivation, morality and practicality… Mental energy: ­ The psychology apparatus of the mind needs energy to make it go ­ Libido: the mental/ psychic energy used by the mind ­ Fixed and finite amount ­ Information-processing capacity is limited * When energy powers part of one mind is not powering other parts (law of conservation) Controversy and criticism: ­ Too emphasis on sex ­ Invalid, unscientific theory ­ People can be uncomfortable being “analyzed” 2 Fundamental Motivation: ­ Libido: life drive and sexual drive (Creativity, productivity, growth) ­ Thanatos: Drive toward death Doctrine of opposites: ­ Everything implies its opposite 3 aspect of each stage: 1) Physical focus: where energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained 2) Psychological theme: related physical focus and demands on child from the outside world during development 3) Adult character type: associated with being fixated some in particular stage rather than fully development toward the next one When baby’s need isn’t fulfilled in oral stage: ­ Develop a basic mistrust of other people and never be able to deal with dependency relationships When baby’s need is instantly and automatically fulfilled: ­ Don’t know the world can respond differentlyhard to adapt ­ Person want to go back at the oral stage when increasing demands the world later provides Doctrine of opposites – oral stage ­ Narcissists: parents who were excessively cold/ showered them with too much admiration Oral Character: ­ Adult personality type from extreme childhood experience in oral stage 1) Independent souls refuse help from everyone detŁrmined to go it alone no matter what the cost ­ No accomplishment means anything unless it is achieved without assistance 2) Passive individuals who wait around for their ships o come in ­ Do nothing to better their situations ­ Wanting something should be enough to make it appear Anal stage: ­ Determine how and to what degree to organize your life and how you relate to authority ­ Authoritarian: extremely rigid and obedience ­ Permissive: weak and lacking control ­ Authoritative: compromising btw firm control and their children’s freedom (good) 2 Problems in anal stage: 1) Parents insistently make demands that the child is not capable of meeting 2) Never demanding that the child control her urges, neglecting toilet training altogether Anal character: 1) Obsessive, compulsive, stingy, orderly, rigid, subservient to authority ­ Try to control every aspect of her life and equally happy to submit to an authority figure Cannot tolerate disorganization/ ambiguity ­ 2) Have little/ no self-control ­ Be unable to do anything on time ­ Chaotic and disorganized ­ Have a compulsive need to defy authority Neo-Freudian ­ Much of mental life is unconscious ­ The mind does many things at the once and can be conflict with itself ­ The events of childhood shape the personality of the adult ­ Relationships formed with significant people establish patterns that repeat throughout life with new people ­ Psychological development involves moving from unregulated immature and self-centered state to a more regulated Extraversion ­ PROS: higher status, popular/physically attractive, positive emotions ­ CONS: some health risk factors, argumentative, need to be in control ­ Aspects: enthusiasm, assertiveness ­ Facets: warmth, activity, excitement seeking, positive emotion Neuroticism ­ Stronger negative reaction to stress, sensitive to social threats, vulnerability to psychopathology ­ Poor life outcomes ­ Aspects: volatility, withdrawal ­ Facets: anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness Agreeableness ­ Cooperative, easy to get along with ­ Positive life outcomes ­ Aspects: compassion, politeness ­ Facets: trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty Conscientiousness ­ Positive predictor of academic/work performance ­ Low level of risky behavior, more cautious, longer life expectancy ­ Aspects: industriousness, orderliness ­ Facets: competence, order, dutifulness, self-discipline, deliberation, achievement striving Openness to Experience ­ Most controversial by empirical work, different labels ­ Creativity, perceptiveness, open-minded, imaginative ­ Aspects: intellect, openness ­ Facets: fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, values Typological Approach ­ Well adjusted, maladjusted overcontrolling, maladjusted undercontrolling ­ Not predictive, conceptually useful Psychoanalytic approach ­ Emphasizes the unconscious processes of the mind. Phenomenological approach ­ Emphasizes experience, free will, and the meaning of life. Closely related to humanistic psychology and existentialism Learning approach (behaviorism) ­ Focuses on how behavior changes as a function of rewards and punishments Self-concept ­ An organized set of perceptions we hold about our abilities and characteristics Locus of control ­ The amount of control a person feels he/she has over the environment Self-esteem ­ One's feelings of high or low self-worth Fixation ­ A lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved. Oedipus complex ­ A boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father Repression Banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, ­ feelings, and memories Regression ­ Individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated Reaction Formation ­ Ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. Projection ­ Your own traits and emotions are attributed to someone else Rationalization ­ True motivation is concealed by explaining your actions and feelings in a way that is not threatening Displacement ­ Transfers affect or reaction from the original object to some more acceptable one Sublimation ­ Channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities Denial ­ Denies painful thoughts Humanistic theories ­ Focus on the potential for healthy personal growth Rogers and Maslow ­ All people are basically good ­ Seek to relate closely with one another ­ Have an innate need to improve themselves and the world Self-actualization (Rogers) • People have a basic need to actualize to maintain and enhance life Unconditional positive regard ­ An attitude of total acceptance toward another person ­ Help the client become a fully functioning person ­ Does not develop conditions of worth Lead to a life free from existential anxiety ­ ­ Does not need to follow rules, confident Conditions of Worth ­ Other people value you only if you are smart, successful, attractive… ­ Limit your freedom to act and think Hardiness ­ A lifestyle that embraces rather than avoids potential sources of stress Flow: • Optimal experience • Engagement in activities that are enjoyable for their own sake • Getting lost in the activity • Concentration, total lack of distractibility, time passing very quickly • Arises when the challenges of the activity match one’s skill Self-Determination theory: • Hedonia: Maximize pleasure and minimize pain • Focus on extrinsic goals • Eudaimonia: Seeking a deeper meaning in life by pursuing important goals, building relationships, being aware of taking responsibility for one’s life choices • Focus on intrinsic goals 3 central goal of SDT 1) Autonomy: finding your own way in life and making
More Less

Related notes for PSYB30H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.