PSYB30_lec 8.docx

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Marc A Fournier

Lecture 8 Walter Mischels publication Personality and Assessment 1968 Mischels own critiquefamous trait concepts capitalize on some very powerful intuitions we havelike how consistent we are and how similar our behaviour is from one situation to the next ALL of us have intuitionsto some extent we remain the SAME across various situationsoccasions traits are defined in terms of the consistencies and regularities that show how we thinkfeelact Walter was disappointed after looking at the data if we were to measure how extrovertedtalkativeoutgoing ppl are in a given situation we would predict those same ppl to be extroverted in other situations as well Walter found that kindsextent of correlations between a given trait and a relevant behaviour was VERY LOW Also we would expect a measure of how talkative we are in one situation would predict how talkative we are in another situationbc common underlying traitfor how talkative u r But Mischel didnt find this the crosssituational correlations in behaviour were LOW Available literature bn behaviour and traitsRARELY the correlations were above 030criticism became so imp that in psych whenever a correlation is 03 or below its called a Personality Coefficientpersonality effect meaning NO COSNISTENCY across a range of occasions and no evidence that traits predict our behaviour across a range of situations many ppl took mischels publication of statement as theres no such thing as personality at the very least personality definition requires CONSISTENCY across situations Mischel said theres very little evidence His conclusion The Situationist Movementbehaviour is NOT crosssituationally general rather its situationspecific How we behave is driven not by the traits we have but by the situations we are in If you truly want to predict behaviour u shouldnt measure personality traits but rather look to understand the features of the specific situation the individual is inhad a DEVESTATING impact on personality field ppl assumed traits existedwere real and ppl had crosssituational consistency reply raised by Simore Epstein Mischels conclusions depend on the quality of data he had to analyze and the fact is data at hand in the 1960s wasnt good many of the studies that Miscel reviewed had a common FLAWthey all involved single indices of behaviour single measurementvery UNRELIABLE we never measure anything perfectly a lot of error variancefactors that interfere w measurement process Solution Dont measure behaviour once measure it repeatedly ex measure how talkative a person is over many occasions take all the scores and average themAggregation an aggregated score is MORE reliable index than any one single index maybe a person is not talkative on one occasion cuz had a bad daymissed coffeeetc
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