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All Lecture Notes (Week 1-6 including Lectures 1-11) Detailed.

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

ALL LECTURE NOTES (LECTURE 1-11) WEEK 1 (LECTURE 1+2) Personality: The scientific study of individual differences, origin of individual differences, dimension of differences & implications of individual differences Personality relates to Socialbility, ability to experience negative feelings, tendency to take part in hard work which effects likelihood of getting married, divorcing, need to psychotherapy, how long we need it, how long we will live, how happy we will be living. Personality Traits are the Psychology of stranger as you first get to know them Outlinesketch of the person By knowing a persons personality trait you can predit something about them within the first 10 mins of meeting them such as marriage, divorce, occupationaleducational attainment, & mortality. In order to fill in the details of personality traits to fully understand a person, whats in their mind, concerns, motivated to achieve, developmental life tasks they are currently engaged with, etc. SCIENTIFIC THEORIES Scientific Theories consist of specifically defined constructs linked together by correspondence rules which suggest testable hypotheses. A set of interrelated statements about some phenomena in the world. All scientific theorizing begins with unsystematic observation. Observe the world and come up with ideas to understand the world. Constructs: are the explanatory variables we use as psychologists, something we use to understand the things that occur in the world (Intelligence is a construct -> thus constructs are not always observable). Constructs are also a way of classifying things in the world. Correspondence Rules: are theories that take constructs and link them together. Generate testable hypotheses about the relationships between constructs. www.notesolution.comALL LECTURE NOTES (LECTURE 1-11) Non-scientific theory of personality : example - Astrology (celestial bodies relate to personality differences), or Palmistry (reading palms) Fails to falsifiability Implicit Theories: the theories are not tested -> implicit theories of people remain implicit. The goal of personality psychology as scientific discipline is to take all of our casual observations implicit theories and put them to the test, formalize them, to state explicitly, to gather data to determine if they hold up against scrutiny. 7 WIDELY ACCEPTED CRITERIA (IN SYSTEMATIC ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) Coherence: Logical, need to be internally consistent, and should not contradict itself. Testability: give rise to hypotheses which are clearly falsifiable. Empirically Validity: theories should be consistent with data collected or to be collected in the future, otherwise thrown out. Comprehensiveness: Explanatory scope of a particular theory. Example: Freudian psychoanalysis is a very comprehensive theory as it tries to explain all aspects of human behavior. It is desirable to have comprehensiveness to many parts and information to the theory. Pasrsimonious: Simple and elegant theory means less complicated and easy to understand. When constructing a theory in the real world, theorists often try to balance comprehensiveness and parsimony, because for a theory to be easily comprehended, it needs to have many variables for the detail, but for parsimonious, its less the variables the better, thus a balnce must be found in between the two. Utility (Usefulness): A theory which translates solutions to human problems (socially useful to generate solutions to real world problems, such as psychoanalysis and behaviorism) Generative: Theories should excite scientist & provoke interest to generate new www.notesolution.comALL LECTURE NOTES (LECTURE 1-11) questions. SIGMUND FREUD (SEX & AGGRESSION) Freud (1856-1939) started out as a neurologist and introduced psychotherapy The talking cure & observed patients having mental conflicts, but claimed to have biological conflicts, but there was no biological predisposition. His work spans 23 volumes, they are all random Freudian theories. Believed the human mind is a psychic system which required energy to operate, known as Libido, drives the psychological machine, and cannot be destroyed or created and can only be shunted from one mechanism to another. Libido is the energy which emerged from human instincts, reflecting darwins theries, so human thinking is instinctual in behavior relevant to survival and sex reproduction (put into one set named libido) Libido: Any life sustaining, need satisfying, pleasure oreinted urge (innate energy that drives organism instinctually for survival & reproduction) Later, Freud named Libido as Eros (life instinct Energy which drives you towards life preserving Action) & Secondary, complimentary concept called Thanatos (Death instinct urges we have to destroy, harm, or aggress towards others or oneself). Libidinal Organization: Organization of the libido around a particular organ or function. PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES : LIBIDINAL ORGANIZATION Oral Stage: Birth-18 Months Libido focused around Month, lips, and tongue Infants take great pleasure in being fed, and oral substitutes (sucking thumb) After 18 months get teeth and realized they can chewswallow food. During this time the central issue is TRUST, so infant relies on caregiver to provide gratification or needs. At this time, there is only ONE personality structure which is the Id Reservoire of the Libido & only structure that is present from birth.
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