Lecture Slide Notes Study Guide Chapters 3-4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Lecture Slide Notes: CHAPTER 3-4. Theories Scientists Questions or Uncertainties Ch. 3: Gender, Society, & Culture John B. Watson (1878-1958): UCS UCR CS CR Watson applied Pavlovian techniques to a 9-month old child to demonstrate that a complex emotional response (fear) could be learned through the principles of classical conditioning. Thorndikes Law of Effectthe effect produced by a behavior determines the behaviors future probability of occurrence The strength of behaviorism was its reliance upon i.) observation, ii.) experimentation, and iii.) simplicity of explanation Bandura + Social Learning o Emergent Properties: Intentions have causal (contributing) properties o Triadic Reciprocal (Commonality) Causation: Person (P), Environment (E), Behavior (B) o Fortuitous Determinants in Causal Structures: There is an element of chance in peoples lives www.notesolution.com Fundamental Human Capabilities: I. The Symbolizing Capability o Humans have an extraordinary capacity to represent events and their relationships in symbolic form. o Rather than solve problems solely through performance, we can instead test possible solutions symbolically in thought. II. The Vicarious Capability o Humans have a capacity for observational learning that enables them to expand their knowledge and competencies through modeling the behavior of others. III. The Forethought Capability o Humans have the capacity of forethoughtthe ability to bring anticipated outcomes to bear on current activities. We act out of anticipation of reinforcement that we have either directly experienced or vicariously experienced through others. IV. The Self-Regulatory Capability o Successful human development requires the substitution of internal regulation and direction for external sanctions (self-regulation). o Sub-functions of self-regulation: Self-Observation Judgmental Processes Self-Reaction V. The Self-Reflective Capability o Self-Efficacy The foundation of human agency A persons expectancy or belief in his or her behavioral competence to confront a challenge. Sources of self-efficacy: Personalvicarious experiences of successfailure www.notesolution.com
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