PSYB30-Chapter 7.docx

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Marc A Fournier

PSYB30 Chapter 7 motives and Goals what do we want in life Motivation are wants desires aims and intensions people act upon these wants producing behaviour The root word refers to movement and its what energizes and directs human behaviour what we want is what we needMotives and goals are one class of characteristic adaptationThe Psychoanalytic View Freuds theory of motivation consists of 1 determinism 2 drive 3 conflict and 4 the unconsciousForces determine all human behaviour and experience these forces exist within us and are important for drives for sexuality and aggressionForces that determine all our behaviour and experience come in conflict with one another and cause anxietyWe do not know what those forces are they are unconscious to usSexuality and aggression are the ultimate human motivationsThere are two sets of instincts or drives 1 sexuality and all other life instincts Eros and 2 aggression and all other death instincts thanatosThe UnconsciousLives are driven at an unconscious levelNegative experiences lives on the unconscious level and play itself in conscious experience through symptoms anxiety and dreadThe topographical model of human functioning consists of the conscious region which we are aware of the preconscious region which we can readily retrieve in ordinary memory and the unconscious region which cant be readily retrieved and is actively repressed it is associated with conflict and is expressed in disguised or symbolic formRepression and RepressorsNonconscious cognitive operations have implicit information processingUnconscious thinking is superior in reaching correct solutions to complex problems suggest that we can attain good insight when we put conscious thought aside and go with our gut intuitionsFreuds understanding of unconscious realm was they were unconscious because they threaten the persons well beingRepression is an inescapable fact of life keeping something out of consciousnessRepressors are persons who experience little anxiety and adopt a highly defensive approach to lifeRepressors recall fewer negative memories and tended to also report fewer positive memories as well so it may just be a failure to retrieve emotional memories of various kindsRepressors report memories involving emotional experiences of other peopleRepression operates most powerfully in the domain of selfevaluationHansen and Hansen said that emotionally tagged memories are left inaccessible they simplify negative memories keeping them from connecting in their minds to other autobiographical memories o Nonrepressors tend to describe negative memories in more complex termsEach category of emotional memory specified a corresponding dominant emotion and set of nondominant emotions repressors reported less nondominant emotions at a less intense level so they would underscore a memory with a dominant emotional reaction rather than a host to ward of negativity associated with itExtreme stress repressive coping styles can lead to resilience the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in life and to thrive amidst adversityRepressors felt relatively little conscious distress but high physiological arousalBereaved individuals who expressed repressive coping styles showed better physical health and better psychological adjustment 18 months later Bonanno said that repression might be the best strategy in traumatic eventsDifference in everyday information processing autobiographical memory and physical health all employ different coping strategies
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