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Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 1 Personality Traits are general internal comparative dispositions we attribute to people to sort out meaningful behaviour and account for consistencies Use self report questionnaires Traits = sketch out personality Traits determine things like personality and behaviour across situations Big 5 OCEAN chart on page 7 o Openness to Experience o Conscientiousness o Extraversion o Agreeableness o Neuroticism Outline, need to go beyond dispositional traits Move beyond dispositional into contextualized aspects such as time place and role: Characteristic Adaptation CAs are contextualized facets of psychological individuality that speak to motivational, cognitive and developmental concerns in personality Three categories of characteristic adaptations: o Human Motivation: what do people want or desire in life? o Cognition and personality: cognitive factors values, beliefs, expectancies, schemas, plans, personal constructs, cognitive styles in human individuality o Developmental theories: the evolution of the self and the relationships from birth to old age Traits, adaptations and life story Life story is an internalized evolving narrative of self that integrates the reconstructed past, perceived present and anticipated future to provide life with a sense of unity and purpose. Starting from adolescence people being to think of their lives as stories to rewrite and revise Traits, adaptations and stories Chart on page 11 Traits fill out outline, adaptations fill them in, life stories speak to what a human life means overall 1 www.notesolution.com Scientific method: unsystematic observation, building theories, evaluating propositions o When evaluating propositions, two methods of scientific examination are mainly used: correlation design (how they relate) and experimental design (manipulate IV to measure DV) History of Modern Personality Psychology: (1) 1930-1950, period of developing general systems and grand theories of personality (2) 1950-1970, period of refining measurement techniques and elaborating personality constructs (3) 1970-Today, period that began with a crisis concerning the legitimacy of personality studies and developed into the present sense of renewal and invigoration in the field of personality psychology Personality psychology focuses on psychological individuality, enduring characteristics, individual differences in adult hood, and its look at normal healthy psychological functioning Chapter 2 Genes from DNA responsible for natural selection, promoting traits that enhance reproductive ability Lactose tolerance is a genetic mutation Two ways of replicating genes: having offspring or promoting the reproduction and well- being of those who share your genes (woman and her sister example) Inclusive fitness: ensuring the survival of close relatives or kin in order to promote reproductive success Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA) Religion gives sense of cohesions and certitude Two different thoughts as to the origins of religion One: religion as an adaptation, using it as an evolutionary adaptedness Two: parental relationship with God, hierarchy inherent in human nature, promoted birth of religion Could also be a natural growth of ways of thinking: if an animate object moves from a force inside the object, it is its own will? If from outside of object, it is the will of God. Theory of mind, project it onto objects, detect agents that make objects in the environment interact Buss lists social reproductive problems on page 41 Sex has evolved to be pleasurable so that our genes will be able to reproduce eventually 2 www.notesolution.com Distal vs. Proximal: Distal refers to evolutionary and inclusive fitness behaviour while proximal refers to more immediate environmental, physiological and cognitive behaviours Distal (distant) reason for sex: evolutionary and gene transmission Proximal (close) reason for sex: it is pleasurable Proximate behaviours may be derivative of distal ones Distal subtly influence proximate behaviours, affecting perhaps overall human nature instead. Men should strive to impregnate as many women as possible to ensure reproductive fitness Men like to have more sex, with more partners, attributes do not matter, they will have sex with those they would not consider dating Studies shows presence of sexual withholding behaviour from women Darwin: some displays in animal kingdom seem boastful and wasteful to their survival, but seem to boost reproduction Women improve their beauty, men assert their dominance Altruism is an agreed trait between the sexes along with sympathy, kindness, good manners, helpfulness and humour Short term and long term involvement for men spurred creativity for men while long term is the primary creative motivation for women socioanalytic theory asserts human beings are biologically predisposed to live in social groups that are variously organized into status hierarchies, evolutionary advantages in cooperative ventures such as defence against predators also provided a means of obtaining a status that would have advantages for individual members, such as first choice in food, romantic partners, living spaces and whatever other desirable commodities, promoting reproductive success sociosexuality: restricted: commitment and closeness, need emotional closeness before sex, long enduring sexual relationships, few sexual partners but they endure for a long time unrestricted sociosexuality: comfortable engaging in sex without commitment or closeness, short, prototypical male unrestricted: earlier sex, more partners, prefer especially attractive socially prestigious partners, less investment, commitment, love and dependency unrestricted men tend to be narcissistic, sexist less dominant men can choose to be restrictive and settle down into a committed relationship unrestricted women can pick the best genes from men natural selection enables unrestricted women who mate with more dominant males to give birth to "sexy" sons who can then go on to spread genes further, statistically significant that promiscuous women have more sons male = quantity, female = quality restricted = parental investment 3 www.notesolution.com unrestricted = reproductive enhancement in certain environments, these adaptations useful different reproductive strategies take the form of different personality traits effective social adaption into the roles gives people popularity and power social life challenges: getting along and getting ahead our ways displaying self to family members are our character structure larger audiences such as society is our role structure social life consists of two aspects: personal character and social role aggression can proliferate reproduction and improve reproductive success male especially aggressive for intrasexual competition evolution favours the aggressive, just look at Hollywood hierarchy is for cooperation as well as competition need both aggression and altruism, need to be amoral society group value: individual human beings depend on group for finding food and defence against enemies and predators mutual aid: cooperate with one another in group activities for reciprocal exchange internal conflict: compete with one another in a group dyadic level: one on one interaction, direct reciprocation of relationships between individuals higher level: community concern and care about good relationships between individuals that are expressed in mediated reconciliation peaceful arbitration of disputes, appreciation of altruistic behaviour in group, group encouragement of individual contributions to quality of the social environments overall table on page 55 for origins of human morality and altruism kin selection, help blood relatives Reciprocal altruism: low risk to helper, high benefits for recipients, high likelihood the situation will be reversed in the future. Altruism takes two forms: kin selection or reciprocal altruism Altruism occurs a lot more in public manners, when the public will know 4 www.notesolution.com
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