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PSYB20 All Lecture Notes for Midterm1.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

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History of Developmental Psychology Development and the Developmental Sciences What is Development • systematic changes that occur in individuals between conception and death. science of development? • Interdisciplinary nature of the study of development Child Development in Historical Perspective th th Childhood in Medieval Times (6 - 15 centuries) • The view of children • The contradictory nature of childhood Childhood in the Reformation (16 – century) • The influence of the Puritans (treat children with discipline nd little play.established religion,work,education,) • The idea of “original sin(children were perceived as basically bad, being born into the world as evil beings) Philosophical roots of human development o -more human thoughts of children o -emphasize the reward structure (not money/bribery,physical punishment) o -treat children with kindness John Locke (Adult behaviours were developed by warm,consistent parental behaviour ) and the British Empiricists • -environment...child is passive • children are not innately bad but, instead, are like a "blank tablet," a tabula rasa • Knowledge gained through experiences • Two important conceptual points • Idea of continuous development • Importance of “nurture” Rousseau • children innately good( incl.justice,fairness,conscious); o “noble savage”(primitive human kind;innate good,uncivilized) • &knowledge unfolds naturally with age • Development guided by series of timetables,stages, Thus,should be permitted to grow naturally, with little parental monitoring or constraint. Two important conceptual points: o -maturation (genetically determined process of growth,unfolds naturally) o Concept of stages Scientific roots of human development Charles Darwin (first scifi observation) • Natural selection • Environment where animal exists places demands on animal • Thus, natural environment “selects” organism for survival • Survival of the fittest • Organisms possessing characteristics that fit the requirements of the environment will survive G. Stanley Hall • Adopted at “nature” viewpoint, translating Darwinian principles into human development • Proposed the Recapitulationist theory, in which life cycle changes are a repetition of evolutionary changes -develop of individ goes thru the same stages as evulotion of the species - (antogeny/phologeny) -2-3 yr old significant cognitive ability than prehistoric apes. • Students of Hall • Lewis Terman o -growth of mental abilities o -development test at standford IQ o -descriptiv discipline for psych • Arnold Gesell o -Maturation theory o ...independent of the child learning o ...sensory motor o -growth hormones o -system study o -perceptual ability Themes and Theories of Human Development What is a theory (2 organize thinking) Theory • A set of concepts or propositions that describe and explain some aspect of experience. What is a scientific theory? • A public pronouncement indicating what a scientist believes about his or her area specific area of investigation What are the characteristics of a good theory? • Parsimony (few principles exp.lrg # of observations) • Concise, yet able to explain a wide range of phenomena • Falsifiability • Capable of making explicit predictions • Heuristic value • Can be applied to unknown situations and cases Question and controversies about human development • Assumptions about human nature • Innate purity (rousseau)versus original sin(puritans?) • Tabula rasa(Locke-child nor good/evil),builde thru experience(nurture) • Nature (gesell)versus nurture(locke) (in txt bout intelligence,temperament….) • Activity versus passivity (what role does child play) • Continuity of development • Stages of development • Quantitative versus qualitative change • Quantitative (continuous );addition,graudal– changes in degree(i.e.tadpolefrog) • Qualitative (discontinuous); stages – changes in kind (i.e.tall) • Connectedness of development(relations b/w earlier and later development.i.e.discontinuous(baby smiles then stops) • Similarity versus differences Continuous(steps) versus Discontinuous (jumps)Development Theories of child development Psychoanalytic viewpoint(structural- organismistic)  Structural organismistic-qualititive(discontinuous) ;incl.Freud,Erikson,Piagetian Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychosexual development (passive) and Ericksons (psychosocial) Components of the personality (emotional developemtn) • The Id(basic needs) – legislator of the personality • The Ego(solution) – executive of the personality • The Superego(moral) – judicial branch of the personality The theory of psychosexual development Child impulses the libido focuses on diff parts of the body • The oral stage (birth – 1 year)-mouthmajor impact later on life • The anal stage (1 – 3 years)toilet train • The phallic stage (3 – 6 years)develop sexual desires for opp sexparent..then suppress..but cant..takes on the role (girls have weaker superegos,identification ..superego develops;sexual anatomy • The Oedipus complex(boys) .strongr resolution and more complex than girls electra • Latency period (6 – 12 years),curious bout gendr identity…puberty • The genital stage (12 years on)(reactivation of phallic but more appropriate),relationships Erikson-psychosocial o -expanded upon the freuds o -on social relationships the conflicts... o -the resolution cn shape the personality o -life-span Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Cognitive Developmental Theory • Children as constructivists(adapting to the world) • Organismic theorist • Development occurred in stages Evaluation of theory Freud one of the first individ to suggest tht humn behave are from unconscious o -impacted on major role of early experience on later behavior Limitations: o -not aplplicable to othr culture o -emphasis on sex o -lack observation o -no evidence about the superego of girls o -doesn’t apply to diff family structure Theories of child development Learning theory (Behaviorism)  Learning theory-Continuous,gradual,additions;by classical/operant (bandura,info-process) John B. Watson (1878-1958) • Classical conditioning • Association of a neutral stimulus with a non-neutral stimulus(reflective response) • Little Albert -consistent w/ Tablo Rasso,the enviro-simply shapes it thru these association - continuous view,cause cud increase in strength B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) • Operant conditioning • Reinforcers increase behavr • Punishmentdecrease behavr (incl.dissaproval) Behavior contracted by the consequences Albert Bandura (1925- ) • Modeling and observation learning • Socio-cognitive theory o Personal standards and self-efficacy o Learn behavr onli thru observation(helps child learn behavr tht are not directly reinforced o Activ Information-Processing Theory(steps how to solv problem)  cognitiv  Concern with rigor and precision(detail plans)  Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience o Brings together psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine o New methods for analyzing brain activity o Importance of brain plasticity(open to growth and doesn’t end in childhood) Enhance knowledge of brain and behaviour Evaluation of learning theories Positive: • Major impact on practices with child • Behavior modification(dealing w/anxiety,nail biting,simple everyday problems Negative • Downplays importance of biological factors • Too narrow view of environmental factors • Underestimates children’s contributions to develop(passiv/active role) Theories of child development Cognitive theories(piaget,info-process) Theories of child development Ethological and evolutionary theory Niko Timbergen & Konrad Lorenz Ethological Theory • Imprinting • Critical (limated time span and stimulus has to be there)and sensitive periods(optimal time to receive stimulus,less rigid than critical) Evolutionary Developmental Psychology • Adaptive value of cognitive, social, and emotional competencies • Interest in genetic, biological, and learning(answers questions of visual preference for survival/gender segregated groups) Theories of child development Vygotsky & Bronfenbrenner Lev Vygosky (1896-1934) • Sociocultural theory • Social interaction and cooperative dialogues • Emphasis on culture and social experience Children do not understand the world independently Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005)(complex systems in one whole) Ecological systems theory • Bioecological model • Environmental layers Ecological theory(brofen.)Environmental Layers -everchanging system .i.e. timing of events; (as child ages,all these systems will chng) o Chronosystem-temporal system not really a layer o Macrosystem-laws/regulations in culture ,priorities given to the childrens needs (i.e.workplace benefits,affordable childcare) o Exosys-social settings that don’t incl. the children, i.e.parents work,religious institu o Mesosys.-Home,siblings,school,neighborhood,relation in micro o Microsys-two person dyad(parents) Methods of Developmental Psychology Scientific method: o -empiricism o -observation i.e.vaccinations play a role in the development of autism(totally not true)...even though published in journa which lead to parents not vaccianting their children Why study research methods? Two general reasons • Importance of being a wise and critical consumer of research • Bridging research and practice Dimensions(are independent of eachother ) of Developmental Research normative-explanatory dimension (describes expected values (why?) • Normative -describes some typical behavior • Explanatory -explanations for developmental differences naturalistic-manipulative dimensions • Naturalistic- observes behavior in its natural setting • Controlled or experimental observations put the child in situations that will maximize the occurrence of the behavior of interest atheoretical-theoretical dimensions • emphasis on theory as a basis of research -end up of sum scientific data, but doesn't have relevance -i.e.why paint grocery wallpaper purple ahistorical-historical dimensions (-concern with change over time) • Ahistorical -at one particular point in time • Historical -concerned with the origins and future courses of behavior The Longitudinal Design(Age at time) Involves assessing the same group of people over an extended period of time Advantages • Similarities or differences in behavior across development are seen directly • Track performance of individuals over time, identify common patterns and individual differences • Can examine relations between early and late behaviors Drawbacks • Biased sampling • Repeated testing (practice effects) -dropouts • Cohort effects The Cross-Sectional Design(Age group) Involves assessing differently aged groups of people at the same time of testing Advantages o Less time- nd less expensive than longitudinal designs • Not as concerned with practice effects and selective drop-out Drawbacks • No evidence for change at individual level; change is between groups of people Cohort effects Results will be the same,whether design The Sequential Design o -longutundinal-enduring impact o -cross-sect.which cohort benefitted in the long run..time-saving The Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Designs Comparative • through comparison to non-human development w/animal species esp.w/emotional attatchment • controlled tests of hypotheses that would be unethical to test with humans-allows controlled test hypothesis that are problematic with human;-leads to a variety of insights,which we can’t do with humans Cross-cultural research • Compares subjects from different cultural backgrounds -universality of our findings/generalizing -tended to look at differences more than the similarities General Problems with Research and Developmental Research Contaminati
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