Study Guides (248,655)
Canada (121,665)
Psychology (1,882)
PSYB32H3 (195)
Midterm

PSYB20 All Lecture Notes for Midterm1.docx

19 Pages
108 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler

This preview shows pages 1,2,3,4. Sign up to view the full 19 pages of the document.
Description
History of Developmental Psychology Development and the Developmental Sciences What is Development • systematic changes that occur in individuals between conception and death. science of development? • Interdisciplinary nature of the study of development Child Development in Historical Perspective th th Childhood in Medieval Times (6 - 15 centuries) • The view of children • The contradictory nature of childhood Childhood in the Reformation (16 – century) • The influence of the Puritans (treat children with discipline nd little play.established religion,work,education,) • The idea of “original sin(children were perceived as basically bad, being born into the world as evil beings) Philosophical roots of human development o -more human thoughts of children o -emphasize the reward structure (not money/bribery,physical punishment) o -treat children with kindness John Locke (Adult behaviours were developed by warm,consistent parental behaviour ) and the British Empiricists • -environment...child is passive • children are not innately bad but, instead, are like a "blank tablet," a tabula rasa • Knowledge gained through experiences • Two important conceptual points • Idea of continuous development • Importance of “nurture” Rousseau • children innately good( incl.justice,fairness,conscious); o “noble savage”(primitive human kind;innate good,uncivilized) • &knowledge unfolds naturally with age • Development guided by series of timetables,stages, Thus,should be permitted to grow naturally, with little parental monitoring or constraint. Two important conceptual points: o -maturation (genetically determined process of growth,unfolds naturally) o Concept of stages Scientific roots of human development Charles Darwin (first scifi observation) • Natural selection • Environment where animal exists places demands on animal • Thus, natural environment “selects” organism for survival • Survival of the fittest • Organisms possessing characteristics that fit the requirements of the environment will survive G. Stanley Hall • Adopted at “nature” viewpoint, translating Darwinian principles into human development • Proposed the Recapitulationist theory, in which life cycle changes are a repetition of evolutionary changes -develop of individ goes thru the same stages as evulotion of the species - (antogeny/phologeny) -2-3 yr old significant cognitive ability than prehistoric apes. • Students of Hall • Lewis Terman o -growth of mental abilities o -development test at standford IQ o -descriptiv discipline for psych • Arnold Gesell o -Maturation theory o ...independent of the child learning o ...sensory motor o -growth hormones o -system study o -perceptual ability Themes and Theories of Human Development What is a theory (2 organize thinking) Theory • A set of concepts or propositions that describe and explain some aspect of experience. What is a scientific theory? • A public pronouncement indicating what a scientist believes about his or her area specific area of investigation What are the characteristics of a good theory? • Parsimony (few principles exp.lrg # of observations) • Concise, yet able to explain a wide range of phenomena • Falsifiability • Capable of making explicit predictions • Heuristic value • Can be applied to unknown situations and cases Question and controversies about human development • Assumptions about human nature • Innate purity (rousseau)versus original sin(puritans?) • Tabula rasa(Locke-child nor good/evil),builde thru experience(nurture) • Nature (gesell)versus nurture(locke) (in txt bout intelligence,temperament….) • Activity versus passivity (what role does child play) • Continuity of development • Stages of development • Quantitative versus qualitative change • Quantitative (continuous );addition,graudal– changes in degree(i.e.tadpolefrog) • Qualitative (discontinuous); stages – changes in kind (i.e.tall) • Connectedness of development(relations b/w earlier and later development.i.e.discontinuous(baby smiles then stops) • Similarity versus differences Continuous(steps) versus Discontinuous (jumps)Development Theories of child development Psychoanalytic viewpoint(structural- organismistic)  Structural organismistic-qualititive(discontinuous) ;incl.Freud,Erikson,Piagetian Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychosexual development (passive) and Ericksons (psychosocial) Components of the personality (emotional developemtn) • The Id(basic needs) – legislator of the personality • The Ego(solution) – executive of the personality • The Superego(moral) – judicial branch of the personality The theory of psychosexual development Child impulses the libido focuses on diff parts of the body • The oral stage (birth – 1 year)-mouthmajor impact later on life • The anal stage (1 – 3 years)toilet train • The phallic stage (3 – 6 years)develop sexual desires for opp sexparent..then suppress..but cant..takes on the role (girls have weaker superegos,identification ..superego develops;sexual anatomy • The Oedipus complex(boys) .strongr resolution and more complex than girls electra • Latency period (6 – 12 years),curious bout gendr identity…puberty • The genital stage (12 years on)(reactivation of phallic but more appropriate),relationships Erikson-psychosocial o -expanded upon the freuds o -on social relationships the conflicts... o -the resolution cn shape the personality o -life-span Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Cognitive Developmental Theory • Children as constructivists(adapting to the world) • Organismic theorist • Development occurred in stages Evaluation of theory Freud one of the first individ to suggest tht humn behave are from unconscious o -impacted on major role of early experience on later behavior Limitations: o -not aplplicable to othr culture o -emphasis on sex o -lack observation o -no evidence about the superego of girls o -doesn’t apply to diff family structure Theories of child development Learning theory (Behaviorism)  Learning theory-Continuous,gradual,additions;by classical/operant (bandura,info-process) John B. Watson (1878-1958) • Classical conditioning • Association of a neutral stimulus with a non-neutral stimulus(reflective response) • Little Albert -consistent w/ Tablo Rasso,the enviro-simply shapes it thru these association - continuous view,cause cud increase in strength B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) • Operant conditioning • Reinforcers increase behavr • Punishmentdecrease behavr (incl.dissaproval) Behavior contracted by the consequences Albert Bandura (1925- ) • Modeling and observation learning • Socio-cognitive theory o Personal standards and self-efficacy o Learn behavr onli thru observation(helps child learn behavr tht are not directly reinforced o Activ Information-Processing Theory(steps how to solv problem)  cognitiv  Concern with rigor and precision(detail plans)  Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience o Brings together psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine o New methods for analyzing brain activity o Importance of brain plasticity(open to growth and doesn’t end in childhood) Enhance knowledge of brain and behaviour Evaluation of learning theories Positive: • Major impact on practices with child • Behavior modification(dealing w/anxiety,nail biting,simple everyday problems Negative • Downplays importance of biological factors • Too narrow view of environmental factors • Underestimates children’s contributions to develop(passiv/active role) Theories of child development Cognitive theories(piaget,info-process) Theories of child development Ethological and evolutionary theory Niko Timbergen & Konrad Lorenz Ethological Theory • Imprinting • Critical (limated time span and stimulus has to be there)and sensitive periods(optimal time to receive stimulus,less rigid than critical) Evolutionary Developmental Psychology • Adaptive value of cognitive, social, and emotional competencies • Interest in genetic, biological, and learning(answers questions of visual preference for survival/gender segregated groups) Theories of child development Vygotsky & Bronfenbrenner Lev Vygosky (1896-1934) • Sociocultural theory • Social interaction and cooperative dialogues • Emphasis on culture and social experience Children do not understand the world independently Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005)(complex systems in one whole) Ecological systems theory • Bioecological model • Environmental layers Ecological theory(brofen.)Environmental Layers -everchanging system .i.e. timing of events; (as child ages,all these systems will chng) o Chronosystem-temporal system not really a layer o Macrosystem-laws/regulations in culture ,priorities given to the childrens needs (i.e.workplace benefits,affordable childcare) o Exosys-social settings that don’t incl. the children, i.e.parents work,religious institu o Mesosys.-Home,siblings,school,neighborhood,relation in micro o Microsys-two person dyad(parents) Methods of Developmental Psychology Scientific method: o -empiricism o -observation i.e.vaccinations play a role in the development of autism(totally not true)...even though published in journa which lead to parents not vaccianting their children Why study research methods? Two general reasons • Importance of being a wise and critical consumer of research • Bridging research and practice Dimensions(are independent of eachother ) of Developmental Research normative-explanatory dimension (describes expected values (why?) • Normative -describes some typical behavior • Explanatory -explanations for developmental differences naturalistic-manipulative dimensions • Naturalistic- observes behavior in its natural setting • Controlled or experimental observations put the child in situations that will maximize the occurrence of the behavior of interest atheoretical-theoretical dimensions • emphasis on theory as a basis of research -end up of sum scientific data, but doesn't have relevance -i.e.why paint grocery wallpaper purple ahistorical-historical dimensions (-concern with change over time) • Ahistorical -at one particular point in time • Historical -concerned with the origins and future courses of behavior The Longitudinal Design(Age at time) Involves assessing the same group of people over an extended period of time Advantages • Similarities or differences in behavior across development are seen directly • Track performance of individuals over time, identify common patterns and individual differences • Can examine relations between early and late behaviors Drawbacks • Biased sampling • Repeated testing (practice effects) -dropouts • Cohort effects The Cross-Sectional Design(Age group) Involves assessing differently aged groups of people at the same time of testing Advantages o Less time- nd less expensive than longitudinal designs • Not as concerned with practice effects and selective drop-out Drawbacks • No evidence for change at individual level; change is between groups of people Cohort effects Results will be the same,whether design The Sequential Design o -longutundinal-enduring impact o -cross-sect.which cohort benefitted in the long run..time-saving The Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Designs Comparative • through comparison to non-human development w/animal species esp.w/emotional attatchment • controlled tests of hypotheses that would be unethical to test with humans-allows controlled test hypothesis that are problematic with human;-leads to a variety of insights,which we can’t do with humans Cross-cultural research • Compares subjects from different cultural backgrounds -universality of our findings/generalizing -tended to look at differences more than the similarities General Problems with Research and Developmental Research Contaminati
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3,4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit