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Midterm

PSYB20 All Lecture Notes for Midterm 2.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler
Semester
Fall

Description
Dont worry bout exact wording of lec just outline is good Motor Development I Age norms for important motor milestones II The development of reachingA Underlying skills of visuallyguided reaching 1 Perceptual abilities2 Motor skill 3 Perceptualmotor coordinationB Reaching in neonates C Normative sequence of reaching D Reaching for a moving object E Reaching with the hands and feetF Is visuallyguided reaching a mythIII The development of locomotionA Perceptual information in locomotion 1 Perceiving the properties of surfaces2 Control of balance3 Visuallyguided locomotionB A systems approach to development of walking 1 Component skills 2 Relation between skills Age Norms For Important Motor Milestonestypically at the end of first month begin achievingvariation of these milestones are unrelated to the subsequent growth of emotionalintellectual table is avrg age inmonths motor development continues on into adulthood Skill 50901 Lifts head 9022 322 when lying on stomach3 Rolls over 2847 4 Sits propped up2942 5 Sits no support5578 6 Stands holding on58100yr7 Walks holding on92127 1yr8 Stands alone 115139 1yr9 Walks well 1211431yr10 Walks up steps 170220 2 yr 11 Kicks ball forward200240 2yr Necessary Skills for VisuallyGuided Reaching 1 Perceptual skills Object recognitionFigureground separation distinguish from backgroundreachingMotor skills Arm and hand coordinationwo vision yet grasping movementFinemotor coordination and control 2 Visualmotor integration and coordinationVisual guidance of the handTiming of the grasp The Normative Sequence of Reaching 12 Months Glance at objects when presentBegin to fixate objects for 510 secArms not organized with vision23 MonthsIsolation of components breaks downFocus on objects Beginning of prehensory behavior Raise hand towards object34 Monthsbegin to orient their bodyMutual grasping 1 or 2 handsSometimes turn torso towards object45 MonthsIntegrated looking and graspingToplevel reachingGood grasping of objectType of Contact With a Moving Objectinfants are more likely to reach for the obj as they age towards the slower object Von HofstenLindhagen 1979 The number of reaches at each speed and age expressed as a proportion of the maximum number of possible reaches 3 per condition 1821 weeks grasping is outperforming touchingdata shows when infant successfully reach fora movingstationary obj is the sameThe type of contact with the object Proportion of total number of reaches for grasp touch and missReaching with the hands vs feetGallowayThelen 2004Compared timing for reaching with the hands versus reaching with the feetTested 815 week olds longitudinally weeklyPresented toy at midline between shoulders and midline of hipsTiming of reaching with hands and feet infants better control the legsfeet than the handsarms partly cause of physiology of the infantAverage age of first contact Hands 157 weeks Feet 117 weeksExtended contact with object Hands 16 Feet 118 Is VisuallyGuided Reaching a MythClifton Muir AshmeadClarkson 1993 Reaching in the light versus the darkindividual subjectseffect of age contact and grasp of the obj touchgrasp in the light is the top bars and the below bars are in the dark the bars are the same amount which tells us that visionguided reaching is a myth the use of vision maybe for other roles Infants Perceptions of the Traversability of Surfaces The Walkway Apparatus schmuickler walking influence cognitionemotionattatchment and has a motor component infants actually crawl backwards first than forwards infants have to know the surface for locomotionfriction style of surface effects locomotion a walking infant can differentiate the surface while moving walking infant no latency while crawling on surface and showed less displacement behavrrec real diff was in the waterbed surface where crwling infant showed no diff but only more explanation behavr no displacement behavrno distinction w surface walking infant increased in displacement behavrdistinction with the surfaces Infants chooses rigid surface instead of the waterbedwhich suggests the style of locomotion and deals with the surface of it The Visual Control of Posture
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