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Final

PSYB20 All Lecture Notes for Final.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler

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Attachment (-motional development-first proposed by freud-the foundation of personalities on infant base on relationships with parents; widely accepted that this leads tht early emotional attatchment huge impact for the later development) (attatchment-effectional ties to intimate companion,attempt to maintain proximity with one another…the limitations have lead to the ethological approach) Theories of Attachment Behaviorist Approach The importance of feeding and drive reduction • Elicits positive responses (thus increase caregivers affection for the infant) • Mothers provide infants with additional comforts, such as warmth, vocalizations(relax w/ infant) (infants associates all these positive feelings with mom,so positive reinforcement…but may not depict hunger satisfactory) • All occur in single setting Mom becomes source of reinforcement Theories of Attachment Behaviorist Approach Harlow & Zimmerman (1959) • Contact comfort (one monkey wired w/food and the other cuddly but w/ no food; at odds with the drive reduction model cause study showed monkey in favor with cuddly rather the drive- reduction-food especially when exposed to unusual situations) Theories of Attachment Behaviorist Approach(imapact on later relationships and says tht baby is passiv and infant may hav a particular temperament) Blanket Attachment and Play (helps manage their stress,are substitute for the children’s life) (the amount of time child spend in the room w/mother nonblanket and blanket reflect no difference) (the kids who go w/the familiar blanket in an unfamiliar room seems to be attached-serving an substitute as mom-but having the blanket in a relly stressful situation does not work) Blanket Attached Blanket Non-Attached y P o t u D e M MotherBlankeToy No Object Experimental Condition The importance of feeding and drive reduction • Elicits positive responses • Mothers provide infants with additional comforts, such as warmth, vocalizations • All occur in single setting • Mom becomes source of reinforcement Operant Conditioning model(moves beyond feeding; attatchment still occurs even when abused/maltreat; long term attatchment)(limitations-not explain why maintain attatchment over long time and clearly doesn’t happen though) • Infants look, smile, and seek proximity because mom reciprocates with smiles, hugs • The greater number of behaviors that get reinforced by particular person, the more one is attached to that person Theories of Attachment Psychoanalytic Approach(impact on later relationships) Freudian approach • Similar to drive reduction • Become attached to person who satisfies basic biological drives (typically Mom)(when satisfied than attatchment is there;whoever serves the childs needs are the attachment; occurs when the drives are reduced i.e. reducing the need for water,hunger) • Relationship with Mom then prototype for romantic relationships throughout life Erikson’s approach • 1 developmental stage: birth – 1 yr: Trust vs. mistrust • Children become attached to people who minister to needs(maintain attatch,fosters trust) • Importance of mother’s overall responsiveness Theories of Attachment Cognitive-Developmental Approach Little to say about which people to whom one becomes attached • Suggests that attachment depends, in part, on level of cognitive development • Must be able to discriminate familiar persons from strangers(ability to discriminate mom) • Must recognize that familiar persons have permanence – object permanence abilities, as discussed earlier(that mom has to continually exist;stable representation) • Thus, timing of attachment related to timing of development of cognitive ability (8-10yr old) • Theories of Attachment Ethological ApproachBowlby (generally accepted; inspired by ethology;imprinting/critical period-once established cant be modified,fundamentallt adaptive,and increase survival)(modern approach for psychoanalytic)(ultimately saw infant is adaptive in an evulotionary sense- imprinting; infant is biologically prepared and baby actiivly contributes)(discusses the emotional support and cognitive growth) (built-in behavrs;contact with mom ) (mom provides protection for the child-crawling will be protected,will be fed,exploration of the world)(parent was there to increase the childs chance of survival) Central feature of theory • Babies born with in-born set of behaviors (elicit parent care-sucking,clinging,gazing at parents; all have impact w/ closer proximity w/ mom …ovr time the emotional bond grows stronger) • Behaviors elicit parent care, thus increase change of survival The developmental course of attachment • The preattachment phase (birth – 6 wks) • Behavior a matter of genetically determined reflexive responses with survival value(grasping,clinging; orientated towards a human being-signaling the need for them) • Promote physical contact(babies don’t like to be put down) • Attachment in the making (6 wks – 6/8 mos) • Orient and respond with preference towards mom(when baby is separated from mom;baby wont protest-only when separate from othr ppl then will protest) • No specific attachment yet (initially mom leaving room not distressing but after a longer time then will exhibit distress) • The phase of clearcut attachment (6/8 mos – 18/24 mos) • Shows separation anxiety( 18months baby becomes real upset when mom leaves the room) • Mom as a “safe haven” (6-8 months becomes mobile;the independent ability allows for a new host of abilities; mom as ‘safe haven’ for them to explore the world,free to start figuring out what the world is like)(obj. permenance ability- that mom is still there when mom is not there) • Formation of a reciprocal relationship (18/24 mos – ) • Decrease in separation anxiety (cognitive development; growth of linguistic ability; child better appreciate the factors of why mom is leaving and cud predict moms return; also additional means to persuade mom instead of cry/cling)(decrease egocentrism- understanding mom’s perspective for parents who explains why they leave the child will understand) Four phases produce enduring affectionate tie to caregiver(the experience of the four phasescreates a tie that continues for life)(set of expectations in terms of the nature of affectionate relationship throughout life and personality)(supports times of stress) • Use as a secure based in parent’s absence • Used as an internal working model • Produces attachment-related expectations for parental comfort and support • Johnson, Dweck, & Chen (2007) • Habituated to display of small(child) and large ovals(caregiver) • Tested with responsive and unresponsive caregiver(when separated the lrg oval move away, the securely attached looked longer at the large oval)(the child who had un- secure attatched were equal at looking either display; while the securely attatched-6- 12months was surprised; the nature of the ovals behavr when the lrg oval was separarted-the securely attached had expectations for attatchment) Measurement of Attachment The Strange SituationAinsworth (nee Salter) (quality of attatchment differs b/w child-some more relaxed,some more anxious) (mainly used for 1-2yrs old)(reasoned tht child used mom for secure) (looked at the nature of the child i.e. what does the baby do i.e. run,cry, from the codings) Background • University of Toronto B.A., M.A., & Ph.D • Ph.D supervisor – William E. Blatz (child development and security theory) • Moved to England in 1950, worked at the Tavistock Clinic with John Bowlby • Moved to Uganda in 1953 • Moved to Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD) in 1955 Measurement of Attachment Patterns of Attachment(interaction w/ the stranger aries w/ the attatchment w/ mom) Securely Attached(show clear preference for stranger,uses mom for secure base) • Distressed during separation • Seeks out mother during reunion • About 60% of North-American infants Insecure – Avoidant (reacts w/ mom as w/ the stranger) • Unresponsive to mom (hen mom in room;when mom leaves room shows no sighn of distress) • Avoids parent during reunion • About 15% of North-American infants Insecure – Resistant • Seeks closeness to mom, fails to explore (not using mom as a ‘safe haven’) • Combines clinginess and resistant(oto the moms affections) behavior upon return • About 10% of North-American infants Insecure – Disorganized/Disoriented (greatest form of insecurity)(high risk of pycho disorders) • Combination of avoidant and ambivalent/resistant • Confusion over whether to approach or avoid • During reunion may act dazed or freeze (child seems real upset) • About 15% of North-American infants Measurement of Attachment (strong to assess attachment relationship; for natural occurring behavrs,ecological validity,cud see the attatchmnt categories) Attachment Q-sort Observation of 90 behaviors (very time-consuming to measure the 90) • “The child greets the mother with a big smile when entering the room”(how) • “When the mother moves far away, the child follows along” • “The child uses the mother’s facial expression as a good source of information about something risky” Sorted into 9 categories(doesn’t distinguish b/w the forms of insecure attatchment) • Not at all descriptive – Highly descriptive(-highly categorized the child; gives a continuous measure; tapes wider array of behavrs;) Factors Affecting the Development of Attachment(what happens when close tie develop towards caregiver) Early availability of a consistent caregiver(kids w/ no 1-1 caregiving institutions-when the caregivers constantly changed , children had symptoms of clinical depression versus if institution caregiver were consistent and form a true relationship then no signs of depression symptoms and were better attatched) • Work with institutionalized infants (Spitz, 1946) • Work with infants in institution with good infant-caregiver ratio, but high staff turnover • Research on adoption of European orphans • Indiscriminate friendliness) (…even adopted children who don’t hv early attatchment figure could still form over their lifes and these children were more friendly i.e. talk to starngers who were on the street,would go home with them • ERP differences in the processing of emotional information(expressions) Quality of caregiving (nature) • Impact of sensitive caregiving (physical attactchment-holding the child, were insecure less) • How crucial are such factors? • Gusii of Kenya(hold and interact w/ baby, respond immediately to childs needs=increase secure attatchment) • Mothers in Puerto Rico(also physically limit babies actions; instead of getting them to explore they direct where they should go= infants still very secure) Infant characteristics (bad caregiving-all three forms of caregiving; disorganized pattern is highest w/ abused children with depressed mom,and low marital satisfaction) • Infant difficulties and temperament • Combination of factors(parents mental health-childs reactions both influence direct and indirectly)(affects infants sense of security) Family circumstances • Stressors in the family(infants reactions to parental behavr) • Parent’s own history of attachment(brings their own bonds w/ previous childhood i.e.parents who saw their own attatchment insecure will result in insecure attatchment with their own child and secure parent=secure with child) • Internal working models (life satisfaction)and reconstructed memories Socialization – The Family (first experience relationship of attatchment/bonds nd usually last a lifetime; where first to experience social conflict and begins how to influence the behavr of others) (group living arrangement-lots of non-living primates have) Functions Necessary for the Survival of Society (Winch, 1971) 1. Reproduction: • Replacement for dying members. 2. Economic Services: • Goods and services must be produced and distributed for the support of members. 3. Societal Order: • Procedures for reducing conflict and maintaining orderly relations among members. 4. Socialization: • The young must be trained to become competent, participating members.(necessary for survival)(as the society becomes more complex, the society takes over) 5. Emotional Support: • Binding individuals together, harmonizing goals, dealing with emotional crises, fostering a sense of community, and so on. The Cost of Raising Children(early history,child useful for economic but now they just consume) Source: Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives The Social Systems View of Family Socializaton Bidirectional effects • Parents influence children and children influence parents Bidirectional influences also affected by other family relationships • Mothers and fathers feel more competent as parents when the marital relationship is good Forces within the family are dynamic • As child grows, nature of parental relation changes(continually changes i.e. more freedom as child develops) Relationships within the family are viewed within the larger societal context • Interchanges occur between boundary of inner family and (across)outer external world • Ex., Community connections are significant(imp.) for the well-being of the family(high psycho-pathology in urban enviro cause communities more fragmented vs. the rural more close-knit communities) • Formal organizations – schools, daycares • Informal organizations – friends, neighbors • Strong ties between family and community serve as buffer for family stress Why are social ties effective buffers against family stress? 1. Provide parents with interpersonal acceptance.(discuss concerns,relieve fears,discuss concerns bout parenting) 2. Provide opportunities to exchange information, goods, and services.(i.e.where to get a good baby-sitter,may even strengthen marital relationships) 3. Provide child-rearing controls and/or models.(could see effective/uneffective models) 4. Provide secondary adult influences.(si.e.sports team,imporatant teachers,provide encouragement) Dimensions of Parenting Warmth(how interactions differ b/w parents and child) • Accepting and nurturing of child • Responsiveness, praise, expressions of positive emotions towards child • Warm parents are more successful at socializing children (child suffers if rejects) • Warmth and Comforting/Reparation Behavior (parent keep record when child see someone distressed)(parents more responsive have kids who are more likely to show comforting behavr and the parents made more amend to the child) Less Responsive 60.0 M ore Responsive t d 40.0 n f n c 20.0 P 0.0 C om forting R eparation Child's Behavior Dimensions of Parenting: Control(there is discipline needed but can’t be too excessive so have to be firm and flexible) Positive aspects of control (numbr studies say child much more competent and cheerful) • Parents exercise appropriate control over child’s behaviour when have high expectations and they train child to meet those expectations (parents tht don’t have expectations then child wont behave appropriately) (but with the high standards to behave,also needs to be trained i.e.create situations tht the child can meet those expectations i.e. toys) • Parents should enforce rules of behavior consistently (even 2-3yr old more likely to obey the rules if consistent; the child also learns to have more self-control) • Open communication between parents and children (parents allow reasons for the child to understand the rules and lets the child comment)(allows the child to attempt to understand-child are also more competent)(increase childs cognitive) • Situation management – anticipate problematic situations and arrange them so appropriate behaviour by children is more likely (i.e. child goes to grocery store and goal for them is to have no major scene i.e. repeat request to get something- the parents who were most successful prepared before the grocery trip i.e. parents brought cookies/toys for them to play with and involved less conflict) Negative aspects of control • Power assertion (force,deprivation of priviledges and the fear of the childs dislike of the punishment; simple punish no understanding of the rules so child obedient and self- control) • Short term effects of power assertion(sometimes use to display anger of the child;immediate effects) • Long term effects of power assertion (if child gets caught,then will want to sneak behavr; no internalized standard of behavr) Dimensions of Parenting:Involvement (modified approach)(how the dimensions interact how it relates to the characteristics) (the styles hv the diff outcomes for the child) Defined by parental attitudes and behaviour • Highly involved parents are child-centered (or cold-not involved) • Theoretically does not overlap with other dimension • In reality, high involvement linked to warmth and positive aspects of control (responsive) Classification of Parenting Patterns (Baumrind, 1971, 1973)(focused on how the dimensions interact,in the nature of the interaction) Control Warmth High Low High Authoritative Authoritarian Low Permissive Indifferent Uninvolved  Authoritative: (high warmth;high in control) (parents listens to child and also expects the child to behave in a particular way)Children are buoyant(cheerful), self-confident, and self-controlled (fuctions very well)  Authoritarian: (high in control;low in warth)(parents very demanding and place emphasis on conformity i.e.leave me alone and be good and parents also unresponsive to childs understanding,style is biased to the adults needs)Preschoolers are unhappy and withdrawn, appear anxious in interactions with peers  Permissive:(high in warmth;low in control)(parents avoid in imposing control and allow chil to make decisions) Immature youngsters, overly demanding and dependent(of adults), explosive and disobediant when desires are thrwarted (when someone says they cant do it and also pays less attention)  Uninvolved(unattatched to their child): (low warmth;low in control)(parents provide very little commitment as caregivers-parents may be overwhelmed w/ pressures of their lives..and soon becomes child neglect)By two years children show deficits in virtually all aspects of psychological functioning (increase risk of alcohol abuse)(delay w/ cognitive/intelligence/emotional deficit) Changing Family Structure: Large to Small Families (increase mobility,increase family size,marriage desolution…all of these does not characterize the traditional family structure) (famility size-birth rate 20s decreased 50/60s increase-WW2 baby boom and had steadily decreased since that time) Family size and parent-child interaction • Smaller families have favorable consequences for parent-child interaction (more child add less time for parent devote to each child and parents relationship) • Increasing family size effects marital relation(less satisfied), discipline becomes more authoritarian (and increase child delinquency) (family size is correlated w/ SES thus lrgr families =lower SES and impacts the standard of living so family size and standard of living both effects) Growing up with siblings (most families have more than one child;most report cause of child companionship-most impact and significant factor is the sibling both indirect-siblings relationship w/ parents and direct) • Sibling rivalry (study-when mom had a 2 child,mom took care of it more, so 1 child st jealous-but had lots of positive affections –by 8 months of age the siblings were interact partners) • Siblings as an interactional context (interpersonal skills)for children Only children (parents have a lot of pressure to have another sibling for child cause of steareotype that said they are spoiled and disadvantaged but research suggest incorrect and shows advantages) • Are only children disadvantaged socially and/or emotionally? • Advantages for only children (rated by adults to be more advanced in sociability,more willing to seek for help from others,higher edu levels,better at school because of parent- child relationship,and puts more maturity demands/expectations….has only adult models in the house) Changing Family Structure: Family Mobility(subsequent moving-moving houses,have changes and family disruptions; may have a negative impact but research has found that it depends on the circumstances of how the family builds a supportive base…they may integrate well cause of financial gains-more sufficient resources that can help the child)(…for positive reasons=family do well…for negative reasons= negative consequences-even for moving in short distance-a block, child may begin to display negative behavior,arousal, aggressiveness, securely attatchedinsecure) Greater mobility since World War II • Relocating leads to disruptions in formal and informal ties to community • The circumstances surrounding relocation related to how easily the family adapts to new surroundings Changing Family Structure: Divorce(2x of the divorce…family structure changes; half the time of reconstituted marriages also dissolve)(usually results in low income and family mobility and child often receives inadequate childcare i.e.parents less likely to care cause of one job and new parent-permissive parenting, increase in childs negative beavrioural response i.e.depression) The effects of divorce • Impact on boys versus girls(boys in preschool show more behavr organization than girls cause of diffrences to appraise situation,not mature yet,cognitive processes,separation anxiety) (boys remain more vulnerable in the long run-rising delinquency…has to do w/ the contact with the father; if father live with son then advantageous) (girls less vulnerable only the long-term problem is sexual/romantic relationships but not as great impact on social and well being than boys) The reconstituted family (2/3rds the time one of the parent remarries-positive is that increase supervision for child but create a whole new family makes adjustment quite difficult-cause no biological guideline…often times the intro of the step parent symbols an illusion but it depends on the gender of the child) (child-boy adapt best w/ mother and step-father than girls because feels like intrusion of mother-child close relationship;loyalty issues) (over time new parent relationships
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