Abnormal Psychology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1  abnormal behavior includes: statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness  statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation  clinical psychologist: psychotherapy  psychiatrist: prescribe drugs  trepanning of skulls (making an opening in a living skull by some instrument – where evil spirits can escape) used for headaches, epilepsy and other psychological disorders; introduced by Siberia  somatogenesis (Hippocrates): notion that something wrong with the soma, or physical body, disturbs thought and action  psychogenesis: belief that a disturbance has psychological origins  4 humours (Hippocrates): excess phlegm (person is sluggish and dull), excess black bile (melancholia), excess blood (changes in temperament), excess yellow bile (irritability)  Death of Galen, considered the last major physician, marked the beginning of the Dark Ages for Western European medicine and for the treatment of abnormal behavior  Malleus Maleficarum (“the witch’s hammer”) guide to witch hunts  Leprosariums were converted to asylums  Bethlehem: Bedlam: became a place of wild uproar and confusion  Benjamin Rush: father of American psychiatry, believed that mental disorder was caused by an excess of blood in the brain, his favored treatment was to draw great quantities of blood, believed that many lunatics can be cured by being frightened  Philippe Pinel: primary figure in the movement for humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill in asylums, was put in charge of La Bicetre  Lehman wrote a book about controlling mentally ill people, recommended stringent discipline and harsh treatments; did not get much support  Alberta was the last place to open up an asylum for the insane  Kraeplin discerned among mental disorders a tendency for a certain group of symptoms, called a syndrome.  Regarded each mental illness as distinct from all others, having its own genesis, symptoms, course, and outcome  Proposed 2 major groups of severe mental diseases: dementia praecox (early term for schizophrenia) and manic depressive psychosis (bipolar disorder), he thought that a chemical imbalance contributed to schizophrenia and an irregularity in metabolism as explanation for bipolar disorder  General paresis: delusions of grandeur and progressive paralysis  Louis Pasteur: germ theory of disease: disease is caused by infection of the body by minute organisms  Mesmer believed that hysterical disorders were caused by a particular distribution of a universal magnetic fluid in the body; used rods to touch afflicted parts of patients’ bodies: later translated into hypnotism  Breuer’s method: Cathartic method: reliving an earlier emotional catastrophe and releasing the emotional tension caused by suppressed thoughts  CMHA (Clarence Hincks) helped pass the Sexual Sterilization Act in Alberta  People in Newfoundland and P.E.I are the happiest  “healing” building in Yukon Chapter 2  Thomas Kuhn’s notion of the paradigm, the conceptual framework or approach within which the scientists works  5 paradigms: biological, psychoanalytic, humanistic and existential, learning, and cognitive  Biological paradigm: often referred to as the medical or disease model  Hall used gynecological procedures to treat “insanity” in women from BC, removed ovaries.  Behavior Genetics: phenotype changes over time and is viewed as the product of an interaction between the genotype and the environment  Probands/index cases: finding individuals who bear the diagnosis in question  Ability to offer a genetic interpretation of data from twin studies hinges on what is called the equal environment assumption: that the environmental factors are partial causes of concordance are equally influential  Genetic polymorphism: refers to variability among members of the species  Allele: any one of several DNA codings that occupy the same location on chromosome  Linkage analysis: method in molecular genetics used to study people  Researchers often hypothesize gene environment interactions  A locus on chromosome 9 is associated with enhanced risk for externalizing psychopathology  Each neuron has 4 major parts: cell body, several dendrites, one or more axons, terminal buttons  Reuptake: not all of the released neurotransmitter has found its way to postsynaptic receptors, some of what remains in the synapse is broken down by enzymes and some is pumped back into the presynaptic cell through this process  Norepinephrine, neurotransmitter of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system is involved in producing states of high arousal and may be involved with anxiety disorders  Serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters in the brain  Serotonin may be involved in depression, and dopamine in schizophrenia  GABA inhibits some nerve impulses and may be involved in anxiety disorders  Onset of puberty in teens results in a decrease in serotonin and dopamine activity, increase in the secretion of gonadal hormones as the brain continues to develop through adolescence may be associated with the increased risk of psychopathy  Neurotransmitters are synthesized in the neuron through metabolic steps, beginning with an amino acid  Mininges: 3 layers of nonneural tissue membranes  Ridges called gyri, depressions are suici, deep fissures divide the cerebral hemispheres into several distinct areas called lobes  Frontal lobes: lies in front of the central sulcus, the parietal lobe is behing it and above the lateral sulcus, the temporal lobe is located below the lateral, the occipital lobe lies behind the patietal and temporal lobes  Frontal lobe: initiation of movements; Occipital: vision; Temporal: hearing  Much of the brain’s interior is made up of white matter  Basal ganglia: four masses  Reticular formation: important role in arousal and alertness  Limbic system: controls the visceral and physical expressions of emotion  Prozac, widely prescribed psychoactive drugs, increase neural transmission in neurons that use serotonin as a neurotransmitter by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin  Clozaril, used in the treatment of schizophrenia, reduce the activity of neurons that used dopamine as a neurotransmitter by blocking their receptos  Ritalin used in treated children with ADHD, increase the levels of several neurotransmitters that help children pay attention  Reductionism: refers to the view that whatever is being studied can and should be reduced to its most basic elements  Psychoanalytic paradigm: proposed by Sigmund Freud, results from unconscious conflicts in the individual; based on the assumption that disordered behavior results from a lack of insight and can best be treated by increasing the individual’s awareness of motivations and needs  Id is present at birth and is the part of the mind that accounts for all the energy needed to run the psyche, basic urges for food, water, elimination, sex; seeks immediate gratification and operates according to the pleasure principle  Primary process thinking: generating images, fantasies of what is desired  Ego is primarily conscious and begins to develop from the id during the second six months of life; secondary process thinking – ego realizes that operating on the pleasure principle at all times is not the most effective way of maintaining life; operates on the reality principle as it mediates between the demands of reality and the immediate gratification desired by the id  Superego: operates roughly as the conscience and develops throughout childhood  Objective anxiety: when one’s life is in jeopardy  Neurotic anxiety: a feeling of fear that is not connected to reality (person whose personality has not developed fully)  Moral anxiety arises when the impulses of the superego punish an individual for not meeting expectations and thereby satisfying the principle that drives the superego (perfection principle)  Repression: pushes unacceptable impulses and thoughts into the unconscious  Denial, projection, displacement, reaction formation, regression rationalization, sublimation (converting sexual or aggressive impulses into socially valued behaviors, especially creative activity  Oedipal conflict: irrational fears and avoidances of harmless objects of situations were caused by this, with the fear of the father displaced onto some other object or situation  Transference: patient initiates conversation  Counter transference: analyst’s feelings toward the patient  Ego analysts believe in a set of ego functions that are primarily conscious, do not depend on id for energy; individual’s social interactions can provide their own special kind of gratification  Interpersonal psychodynamic therapy (Harry Sullivan): emphasizes the interactions between a patient and his or her social environment  Interpersonal therapy: concentrates on the patient’s current interpersonal difficulties and discusses with the patient better ways of relating to others  Humanistic paradigms: main influence is on intervention, great emphasis on freedom of choice  Carl Rogers proposed that the key ingredient in therapy is the attitude and style of the therapist rather than specific techniques, believes people are innately good  Unconditional positive regard: if the therapist accepts the person for who he or she is  Empathy is important in Rogerian therapy  Primary empathy: refers to the therapist’s understanding, accepting and communicating to the client what the client is thinking or feeling  Advanced empathy: entails an interpretation by the therapist of the thoughts and feelings that lie behind what the client is saying, and of which the client may only be dimly aware  Existential therapy: embraces free will and responsibility, it also stresses the anxiety that is inevitable in making important choices, therapy techniques are avoided  Goals of existential therapy: encourage clients to confront their anxieties concerning choices about how they will live, what they will value and how they will relate to others  Gestalt therapy (Frederich Perls): people are innately good, emphasize creative and expressive aspects of people rather than the problematic features on which psychoanalysts seem to concentrate, focuses on the present, not the past  Goal of Gestalt therapy: help patients understand and accept their needs, desire, and feats and to enhance their awareness of how they block themselves from reaching their goals and satisfying their needs  “I” language: therapist instructs them to change “it” into “I” language, assume responsibility  Gestalt therapy: Use of metaphors  Learning paradigms: view abnormal behavior as responses learned in the same ways other human behavior is learned  Classical conditioning (Pavlov): dogs salivating at sound of bell/feeder  Operant conditioning (Thorndike): law of effect, behavior that is followed by satisfying consequences will be repeated  Learning that focuses on consequences was first called instrumental learning  B.F Skinner: discriminative stimulus: refer to external events that in effect tell an organism that if it performs a certain behavior, a certain consequence will follow  Skinner argued that freedom of choice is a myth and that all behavior is determined by the reinforcers provided by the environment  Mediational learning paradigms: holds that an environmental stimulus does not initiate an overt response directly; rather, it does so through some intervening process, or mediator, such as fear or thinking  Behavior therapy/modification: applies procedures based on classical and operant conditioning to alter clinical problems  Counterconditioning principle is behind “systematic desensitization” developed by Joseph Wolpe; relearning achieved by eliciting a new response in the presence of a particular stimulus  Aversive conditioning: a stimulus attractive to the patient is paired with an unpleasant event in the hope of endowing it with negative properties; an alcoholic who wishes to stop drinking might be asked to smell alcohol while he or she is being made nauseous by a drug  Token economy: tokens are given for desired behavior and can later be exchanged for desirable items  Cognitive paradigm: focuses on how people structure their experiences, how they make sense of them, and how they relate their current experiences to past ones that have been stored in memory  Cognitive restructuring: changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing a disturbed emotion or behavior  Beck’s cognitive therapy: tries to persuade patients to change their opinions of themselves and the way in which they interpret life events  Ellis’s rational-emotive behavior therapy: sustained emotional reactions are caused by internal sentences that people repeat to themselves, and these self statements reflect sometimes unspoken assumptions  Goal is to eliminate self defeating beliefs through a rational examination of them, Ellis thought that people who were depressed have the desire to be perfect  Stress inoculation training: people who learn to cope with relatively mild levels of stress can be “inoculated” against uncontrollable levels  Electicism: employing ideas and therapeutic techniques from a variety of schools  Diathesis-stress paradigm: links biological, psychological and environmental factors  Many scholary articles are based on the diathesis-stress and biopsychsocial paradigm: both of these paradigms tend to focus on the factors that interact to put people at greater risk of developing disorders, but can help individuals from developing disorders  Maltreated children with high levels of genotype A (MAO-A) were less likely to develop anti social behaviors  The Hutterites in Manitoba have the LOWEST rates of mental disorder (German speaking, Anabapist sect) Chapter 3  Axis I: All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation  Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation  Axis III: General me
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