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Mark Schmuckler

Week 5 – Gender and the Global Factory 4 Feb 13 Assignment 1 due in class Monday, but time stamped at 4:30 if you drop in Daswani‟s box Last week: thinking of “we”  sentiments of nationalism that transcend nation-states  Religion, human rights movements, etc.  Creates others – saying “we Canadians” is a way of making a distinction  Ong article – creation of Chinese diaspora formed through the internet, although individual nationalities existed in different countries of the diaspora (Indonesia, Malaysia, etc.)  Thus, Orientalism is built into nationalistic discourses  Can be for a good cause, or can put down another‟s culture depending on use  Auto-orientalism – when people internalize these stereotypes/personalizations  Seeing oneself through the eyes dominant perspective creating other Discussion of the difference between sex and gender Discussion of how sex binaries can have devastating impacts for women  Control in relationships, domestic violence  Constructions of female beauty  Dove advertisements  „Beauty Pressure‟ youtube video –very powerful Man or woman?  „Sex‟ and „sexuality‟ can also be seen as socially constructed and performative  How would one perform hetero-normative masculinity/femininity?  Daswani‟s example – he was asked once in a class to „perform the other‟  He knew what to do based on learned behaviours from women in his life - Women become „natural‟ subjects for sexual exploitation, gendered stereotypes and labour discipline, due to certain „essential qualities‟ they share, within a global division of labour - Foucault‟s idea of disciplinary power is important (creates docile bodies) „Rosie the Riveter‟ ads from WWII „The Trouble with Women‟ video - While globalization also promotes human/gender rights around the world through social movements – women are still subject to inequalities - Also subjected to homoerotic fantasies of control and domination that reiterate global relations of political and economic power  Youtube ad: the perfect girlfriend - Definitions of terms of normative practices are culturally constructed (femininity)  „The Good Wife‟ video, like an instructional manual - While they can be redefined and contested –these cultural understandings also affirm patriarchal ideologies with these societies  Pepsi ad from 1957 The feminization of the labour force  Opportunities of daycare, for example  In factories around the developing/Third World women (e.g. „Asian‟) are seen to be better workers because of certain „natural qualities‟ i.e. small hands, hardworking, submissive  Jobs outsourced  Deeply gendered images of non-European „other‟ who is docile, obliging, sexualized, and feminized “Maids as slaves”  Aljazeera article about Sri Lankan woman beheaded in Saudi Arabia  Certain kinds of humans have less rights: not recognized as modern humans (“zone of bare life”)  Question risen by Ong: “How are people valued?”  Ong proposes that the space for problematizing the “human” is consulted by multiple ethical regimes (citizenship, moral systems, NGO interventions) Other notes from the slides…. Read section of Remotely Global speaking about NGOs Film of the Week: Title? – About violence and male dominance in hip hop ANTB20 Tutorial 4 – Week 6 February 11, 2013 Can have office hours by appointment – just email Gender and the global factory Understanding Ong‟s Theory  Foucault: Biopolitics o Draws on Foucault  Greek notion in philosophy – distinction between zoe (bare life – all humans are alive, reduced to a living thing) and bios (that you are living as a proper individual in a group; the form your life takes; a way of living as an individual in a group)  If you are stripped of your bios, you are only zoe  Who is considered human as part of a biopolitical community and who is considered inhuman, reduced to bare life  This theory will not be on the exam o Biopolitical otherness o Biowelfare  Citizens/ modern humans vs. bare life – o Sovereignty of the nation-state based on exclusion of living beings not recognized as modern humans (don‟t have rights of citizens) o E.g. concentration camp – no rights therefore reduced to bare life  Foucault – Biopolitics o Technology of power that manages people as a group (concerned with how people live and die)  Concerned with populations and their health and wealth  Concerned with human species/ population  I.e. health wealth, possible with social sciences (tracking demographics)  The state becomes interested in managing the wealth and the health of their population o Made possible through forms of knowledge in the social sciences  Biopolitical otherness – as non-citizens o People who are not in the group the state is interested in o What kinds of life are being valued and how life is being valued  ONG – biocartography o What technologies of control are foreign domestic workers subject to (i.e. by employers and the state) o Two technologies of control: 1. Employer/ household  Disciplined by labour conditions (e.g. wage)  Employers holding papers (passports)  Travel is limited  Ong argues they are controlled by a logic of incarceration o Disciplines the bodies of individuals  Another form of power that restricts your individual body 2. Nation-state  Citizenship status  If you aren‟t a citizen, you are subject to certain kinds of control  Limited access to public space o Logic of securitization  Biopolitical technology  Excluding certain groups  Level of population  Biopower works at level of population and individuals at the same time o Need to regulate certain individuals  9/11 was an event that enable to logic of securitization o Indonesians were illegal and were associated with STIs and diseases (associated with AIDS, having questionable minority)  Constructed otherness o Asian financial crisis  Maids were exported  Stigma then events resulted in exclusion based on o Maids were hierarchical  Brokerage state – Phillipines  Brokering labour  Commodified labour o Attempt to create the „perfect maid‟  Training programs priming migrants  Bilateral agreements o Selling quality of migrant labourers  Have more protection and are valued as better maids than Indonesian domestic caregivers (Cadillac of nannies) o Post secondary education, usually  More human capital o They have social capital – can speak English  What does Ong mean by “incarceration” as a means of labour discipline?  How are Filipina and Indonesian maids constructed as a threat to the social body in Singapore, Malasia, and Hong Kong?  Why are the host societies (and employers) ambivalent about having moral obligations to foreign workers? o Two year contract  Training and put so much effort into training them but they leave  They are not a part of their kin o Not seen as being part of moral community  Mobile community that had „questionable‟ morals o Talks about tension within household  Women of the house having another woman in the house can jealousy  Constable recommended readings o Maids are regulated individually  Usually by mistresses  The maids were too educated o Almost too close to mistresses o Defining oneself as middle class – part of which is having a made  A social „right‟ of the middle class o Historical practice of servitude  Domestic workers not introduced to kin group in this case, though  What do you think Ong means when she says, “NGOs make both technical and ethical intervention, since their work is fundamentally about managing the risk and security of marginalized populations by giving them value” (198) o Technical  Workers rights  Days off, etc.  Also ethical  Technical intervention on the level of government o Ethical  Changing stigma of how people see the maid  What are the moral economies the NGOs appeal to in order to advocate for domestic workers? o Giving rights to workers increasing productivity  Neoliberal o Biowelfare  Appealing to humanity  Gendered in a particular way  Seeing them as women at risk  Vulnerable women o Need to make sure their life is healthy so that they can be good neoliberal workers o The human rights approach wasn‟t used  Neither was their citizenship status  No one saw that as a realm of possibility  In contrast to Canada, where migrant workers‟ rights are advocated for  Canada‟s live in caregiver program o Comparative example: o Different immigration streams – this one brings in primarily Filipina women to work with families  Two year period nannies live with families  Paid reduced wage for free room and board  After two years can apply for permanent residency – pathway to citizenship  “Trial period” o What technologies of control does the program subject Filipina nannies to?  Still, kind of logic of incarceration  Don‟t want to complain about employer because your life in Canada is dependent on that employer‟s household o Structurally, system puts you in vulnerable position o Activists have rallied to make it easier for switching to occur  People are still reluctant to „cause trouble‟ o In both cases, Asia and Canada, we need people to take up domestic nannies  Two income households  Growing middle class  Activities groups advocate for mobility rights as well as citizenship rights o There is a hierarchy of immigration  Education – who is needed in Canada o There is also an immigration stream, a refugee stream, and the temporary workers stream  Over last 10 years, skilled workers stream is prioritized  Professional migrants  Esp. English skills  We have a certain ideal of who is a good citizen o Highly educated o Has human capital o Meets labour market needs and streams  Then family class after professionals Gregory – Ch. 4 NOTE: Heteronormative and homosocial stuff Imperial masculinity What are the different hierarchies of race? Epidermic capital Categories among sex workers How they disrupt the representation of themselves  What approaches to representing sex workers does Gregory criticize? How does he aim to study sex workers? o Consider: structure vs. agency (exam)  Gregory says sex workers have agency  Structure: what are the political economic forces have shaped poor women‟s employment opportunities in the Dominican Republic? Why do women turn to sex work?  Race  Citizenship status  DR sex tourism – lucrative  Lack of jobs with rights or pay o Neoliberal privatization  More jobs maybe but nature of job is hard  No flexibility if you have to care for children o Men are more likely to find job  For some women, it is a last resort  Some women actively choose it – more lucrative, more flexible hours, enjoyment  Some women do it only on weekends o Sex worker reduces women to singular identity  Women are complex  This is one aspect of their life Lecture 7 – February 25 – Global Capitalism Whole point of Assignment Number Two – is you construct your own question GLOBAL CAPITALISM - until recently the technology has had many changes - internet - even the ability to use out cellphones in different ways - idea of internet was embryonic in the late 70s . - 90s we started thinking about globalization - there is a technological drive that allows us to conceptualize and think of globalization - theories of how the work is changing and how it changes human behaviors and human nature - apart form the technology advancing, the social theories around it that try to understand how we conceptualize ourselves as human being along this globalization processes - not just technological changes, our identity is also being transformed - changes on how we interact - technology has created a less of a need to have in person conversations - time is no longer and issues because transportation is no longer an issue - you could be anywhere at any time - time , space and sociality become important - they bring all these themes into one context: - Call centre show it - Call centres? o Time space compression – aspect of globalization – lecture 1  Whether through theories like Anthony Gibons or David Harvey- no need to have face to face interaction  Contradiction of ability to simultaneously interact o Games that allow you be another person , another personality Global Capitalism What is it ?  Capitalism has taken on new forms since the 1970s  The new people we live in has been labeled as Post Fordist – informational and networked or a disorganized capitalism  Information is networked, its not longer in a place  Labour no longer in a place, its outsourced  These models have les to important debates about the new experiences of space, time, and identity emergent from those technological and social changes  Neoliberalism – open markets assumes that the borders are not really relevant and states will invite certain forms of investment from overseas – the privatization of companies , The Network Society : Manuel Castells – 1996 Argues that the main mode of social organization in politics, the economy and civil society is shifting from the relatively stable hierarchy to a more fluid network form. These networks are interpersonal……. TECHNOPOLES CASTELLS Talks about the role of the spider The networks as a web The most resourceful person is the spider because it knows how to connect it all Know how to network and have the ability to know how to move around the network spider web Recent development that generate the basic materials of the internatio
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