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Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335 EXAM REVIEW PERSONALITY Chapter 7: The Neuroscience of Personality Nervous System Central (Brain and Peripheral (Muscles Spinal Chord) and Glands) Somatic (Muscle Autonomic (Regulates Movements Organs/ Glands) Sympathetic Division (Mobilizes Energy) Fight or Flight Parasympathetic Division (Salivation /Digestion)  Bodily Responses: Result of reactions in the autonomic nervous system. For example the flight or fight mentality is a direct response of stimuli reaching the brain in a high cortical arousal situation.  Galvanic Skin Response (GSR); is a method of measuring sweat as a result of electrical current moving through the skin.  An Electromyography (EMG) or myoelectric activity is used to measure muscle activity and electrical impulses. Good in biofeedback to relax muscle activity. Brain Structure Referring to the size relative to the weight of the various parts of the brain.  Computerized Tomography (CT scan): High resolution X-RAY of the brain by looking at the cross sections of the brain [less than a millimeter].  Computer Axial Tomography (CAT scan): The old name for the CT scan.  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Use radio frequencies instead of x-rays in order to take images of the brain. They are known as magnetic radio imaginings technologies. Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335 Brain Activity Commonly measured through these 5 methods for stimulation analysis.  Cortical Stimulation: Small shocks administered to certain parts of the brain to activate them. Usually done with animals. Electrodes are placed somewhere in the brain, and they see what happens when they become stimulated.  TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation): The newest type of technology being used for research. Place an electrode anywhere along the skull, and it’ll provide stimulation to the select area of the brain. Used for depression!  EEG (Electroencephalogram): Electrodes placed on the scalp to monitor electrical activity of the brain. Evoked Potential (EP) when brain or other nervous activity is measured in response to a stimulus.  PET (Positron Emission Tomography): Glucose substance is injected into the brain, and the person is placed on a machine similar to a CT scanner. Active regions of the brain use more glucose than inactive ones. To reveal which ones are active a computer is used.  fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) works the same as an MRI except brain activity levels are monitored over time by tracing blood oxygen levels in the brain. The blood oxygen level in the brain is what is being monitored. Biochemical Activity  Neurotransmitters: Chemicals released by neurons to excite next neuron into action, or inhibit it.  Dopamine: Relation to pleasure, sensitivity towards reward, learning, pleasure.  Serotonin: Has to do with mood regulation and arousal. Controls sleeping and eating.  Norepinephrine and Epinephrine: Considered stress hormones; increase blood flow to the muscles by increasing heart rate and blood pressure. Helen Fisher Video  Studying the brain imaging of someone who is in love and why they fall in love.  Nurture vs Nature is an important part of love; see whether it is in our DNA to love someone, or whether it is our environment which causes to like certain people. Important Biological Theories of Personality  Eysenck’s PEN model: Developed as a biological theory because he believed there was a biological relation to these three factors in personality. They work cross culturally, they are consistent over time, and they a heritable. o Introverts have greater cortical arousal, spec in ARAS. o This should be the case when the person is asleep as well. There should be a higher level of cortical arousal when observed and compared to a normal person at baseline. Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335 o Eysenck believed neurotic people had a more stable Sympathetic NS and vulnerable to negative emotions. He found that those who had high neuroticism had an increase in heart rate to intense stimuli. o  Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST): Gray (1972, 1990) o Neurological systems; people think in neural networks. o FFFS (FLIGHT FREEZE FIGHT SYSTEM): Fearfulness and Avoidance o BAS (BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH SYSTEM): Optimism and Impulsiveness o BIS (BEHAVIOURAL INHIBITION SYSTEM): Resolves conflicts, anxiety before resolution  Temperament: It’s believed that biological theories converge on three temperaments.  Extraversion:  + Emotion, reward sensitivity, sociability, social rewards, approach  Neuroticism:  Negative emotion, anxiety, punishment sensitivity, withdrawal  Impulsivity:  Psychoticism, sensation/ noveltyeeking, lack of constraint/conscientiousness/agreeableness Connectionism Central Principle: Mental Phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of units. All actions in the body are a result of connections made in the brain; elaborate networks of connections. Instead of looking at things as a static model they attempt to look at things as they move throughout the body, especially over time. Connectomes [much like genomes] refer to the specific pattern of neural behaviour in a specific person’s brain. Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335 Chapter 8: Intra-Psychic Foundations of Personality Why should we study Freud?  We reference stuff like Freudian slips during the exam.  He was way ahead of his time with theories like, “the unconscious mind”. Most of the stuff Freud talks about is subconscious desires within the person. He proposed that human existence is a constant struggle between a person’s life and death.  Eros: The lift instinct  Thanatos: The death instinct Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche 1. The Id: Original and most primitive desires 2. Ego: Supresses the Id’s crazy desires, and thinks of the situation realistically. 3. Super Ego: Internalization of societal values. Divisions of the mind in the topographic model are the conscious [top; things you’re able to recall easily], the preconscious [middle; stuff that you can bring into your mind if you try] and the unconscious [bottom; things you can’t access at all]. Defence Mechanisms  Repression: Impulse from ever reaching consciousness. Ex) Not stealing peoples food in public when you’re hungry.  Suppression: Pushing an impulse down. Ex) resisting the urge to steal something when no one’s watching.  Sublimation: Transforming id impulses to more acceptable ones. Ex) Channel your emotions in a different direction.  Projection: ascribing undesirable impulses unto others. Ex) Get angry at someone who doesn’t care about you.  Rationalization: Giving a rational explanation for your behaviour. Ex) I didn’t really want that thing anyway, or I meant to do that kind of thing.  Intellectualization: uncoupling thought and feeling. Ex) Make sense of the situation in order to make yourself feel better.  Undoing: Attempts to nullify the thought from your mind in general.  Reaction formation: Converting an unacceptable impulse into its opposite. Ex) Run into your ex with their new fling, and you pretend to act like the situation is good. Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335 Stages of Psychosexual Development; According to Freud 1. Oral: -Receptive: Too trusting, not competent, dependant -Aggressive: Envious and Exploitative 2. Anal -Retentive: Obstinacy, Orderliness, Rigidity, Frugality -Expulsive: Emotional outbursts, disorganization, generosity, rebelliousness. 3. Phallic: -Males: Develop an Oedipus complex that causes them to sexually possess their mother, and they want to murder the father. They become afraid that the father is going to castrate them for doing this. You continue this until you are able to grow out of this and put the idea of possessing your mother out of your head. -Females: Women develop penis envy and live the rest of their lives wanting to be men. Problems with these stages Latency Period: Freud: No significant development in Id impulses of erogenous zone. Current thinking: Important time, in physical cognitive, social and emotional development. Freud’s Bias: He only looked at people who possessed psychological illnesses and generalized them to the public. Inadequate Proof and Gender Differences: His Oedipal complex is way too specific and somewhat twisted in a sense to generalize it to all men and women. Men and Women have two completely different responses. He only focuses on sex and aggression: Which is quite limited, in that people’s personalities are not limited to the two. Freud’s Theories Today: 5 Postualtes  Unconscious processes remain central  Behaviour compromise occurs among conflicting forces  Personality develops across life span; early life is important  Mental representations guide relationships and psychological problems Attachment Theory Basics  The bond formed between an infant and their primary caregiver is important in determining mental health. Warm, intimate, and supportive relationships are the best kind.  Impacts emotion regulation, mental health  Internal working model must be created of: Model Relationships, Model of Others [safety, how others must treat me], model of self Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335 Attachment Levels and Types in Children Mary Ainsworth, following Bowlby (1978) believed in categories of attachment in infants to see how they develop over time. 1. Secure  May or may not cry  Greet them or fully approach them 2. Avoidant  May or may not cry  Little to no eye-to-eye contact at return 3. Anxious /Ambivalent  Distressed by separation  Passive or angry at reunion  Difficult to comfort 4. Disorganized  There is no organized way to describe the way the child responds to being separated. Infant Lab: For Testing Behaviour in Children  Aspects of attachment may be transferred to romantic and peer relationships in the future. o Proximity maintenance, resistance to separation o Presence of a secure base o Safe haven associated with an attachment figure Phase Parents Peers Infancy Proximity Safe Haven Secure Base Early Childhood Safe Haven (Serious Problems) Proximity (Friends, Sleep overs, Secure Base (Provide Stability) fun, safety) Late Childhood/ Adolescence Secure Base (Stability, and Proximity, and Safe Haven home) (They provide you with an escape, and contact comfort. Starting to talk about problems with friends) Adulthood Proximity Safe Haven Secure Base Are Romantic Relationships Attachment Relationships? (Fraley, 2010)  We should see the same attachment patterns  Adult relationships should work on the same ways as an infant caregiver  There should be continuity in attachment style Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335 Chapter 9: Regulation and Motivation; Self-Determination Theory Why Motivation?  We want to know what drives people, and how people differ in motivator.  Psychodynamic theories are essentially motivational Humanistic Tradition in Psych  Reactions to reductionism of behaviour and pessimism of psychodynamics  The person is seen as a system; how it works together in order to make decisions. Fundamental Psychological Needs  Relatedness  Competence: Feeling you can reliably produce desired outcomes and or avoid negative ones. You need to understand the relationship between behaviour and its consequences. o Ex) if they quit smoking, they need assurance that they’re going to have better health. o They need to be able
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