Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335
EXAM REVIEW PERSONALITY
Chapter 7: The Neuroscience of Personality
Central (Brain and Peripheral (Muscles
Spinal Chord) and Glands)
Somatic (Muscle Autonomic (Regulates
Movements Organs/ Glands)
Fight or Flight
Bodily Responses: Result of reactions in the autonomic nervous system. For example the flight or
fight mentality is a direct response of stimuli reaching the brain in a high cortical arousal situation.
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR); is a method of measuring sweat as a result of electrical current
moving through the skin.
An Electromyography (EMG) or myoelectric activity is used to measure muscle activity and electrical
impulses. Good in biofeedback to relax muscle activity.
Referring to the size relative to the weight of the various parts of the brain.
Computerized Tomography (CT scan): High resolution X-RAY of the brain by looking at the cross
sections of the brain [less than a millimeter].
Computer Axial Tomography (CAT scan): The old name for the CT scan.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Use radio frequencies instead of x-rays in order to take images
of the brain. They are known as magnetic radio imaginings technologies. Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335
Commonly measured through these 5 methods for stimulation analysis.
Cortical Stimulation: Small shocks administered to certain parts of the brain to activate them.
Usually done with animals. Electrodes are placed somewhere in the brain, and they see what
happens when they become stimulated.
TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation): The newest type of technology being used for
research. Place an electrode anywhere along the skull, and it’ll provide stimulation to the select
area of the brain. Used for depression!
EEG (Electroencephalogram): Electrodes placed on the scalp to monitor electrical activity of the
brain. Evoked Potential (EP) when brain or other nervous activity is measured in response to a
PET (Positron Emission Tomography): Glucose substance is injected into the brain, and the
person is placed on a machine similar to a CT scanner. Active regions of the brain use more
glucose than inactive ones. To reveal which ones are active a computer is used.
fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) works the same as an MRI except brain activity
levels are monitored over time by tracing blood oxygen levels in the brain. The blood oxygen
level in the brain is what is being monitored.
Neurotransmitters: Chemicals released by neurons to excite next neuron into action, or inhibit it.
Dopamine: Relation to pleasure, sensitivity towards reward, learning, pleasure.
Serotonin: Has to do with mood regulation and arousal. Controls sleeping and eating.
Norepinephrine and Epinephrine: Considered stress hormones; increase blood flow to the
muscles by increasing heart rate and blood pressure.
Helen Fisher Video
Studying the brain imaging of someone who is in love and why they fall in love.
Nurture vs Nature is an important part of love; see whether it is in our DNA to love someone, or
whether it is our environment which causes to like certain people.
Important Biological Theories of Personality
Eysenck’s PEN model: Developed as a biological theory because he believed there was a
biological relation to these three factors in personality. They work cross culturally, they are
consistent over time, and they a heritable.
o Introverts have greater cortical arousal, spec in ARAS.
o This should be the case when the person is asleep as well. There should be a higher level
of cortical arousal when observed and compared to a normal person at baseline. Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335
o Eysenck believed neurotic people had a more stable Sympathetic NS and vulnerable to
He found that those who had high neuroticism had an increase in heart rate to intense
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST): Gray (1972, 1990)
o Neurological systems; people think in neural networks.
o FFFS (FLIGHT FREEZE FIGHT SYSTEM): Fearfulness and Avoidance
o BAS (BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH SYSTEM): Optimism and Impulsiveness
o BIS (BEHAVIOURAL INHIBITION SYSTEM): Resolves conflicts, anxiety before resolution
Temperament: It’s believed that biological theories converge on three temperaments.
+ Emotion, reward sensitivity, sociability, social rewards, approach
Negative emotion, anxiety, punishment sensitivity, withdrawal
Psychoticism, sensation/ noveltyeeking, lack of
Central Principle: Mental Phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of units.
All actions in the body are a result of connections made in the brain; elaborate networks of
Instead of looking at things as a static model they attempt to look at things as they move
throughout the body, especially over time.
Connectomes [much like genomes] refer to the specific pattern of neural behaviour in a specific
person’s brain. Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335
Chapter 8: Intra-Psychic Foundations of Personality
Why should we study Freud?
We reference stuff like Freudian slips during the exam.
He was way ahead of his time with theories like, “the unconscious mind”.
Most of the stuff Freud talks about is subconscious desires within the person. He proposed that human
existence is a constant struggle between a person’s life and death.
Eros: The lift instinct
Thanatos: The death instinct
Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche
1. The Id: Original and most primitive desires
2. Ego: Supresses the Id’s crazy desires, and thinks of the situation realistically.
3. Super Ego: Internalization of societal values.
Divisions of the mind in the topographic model are the conscious [top; things you’re able to recall
easily], the preconscious [middle; stuff that you can bring into your mind if you try] and the unconscious
[bottom; things you can’t access at all].
Repression: Impulse from ever reaching consciousness. Ex) Not stealing peoples food in public
when you’re hungry.
Suppression: Pushing an impulse down. Ex) resisting the urge to steal something when no one’s
Sublimation: Transforming id impulses to more acceptable ones. Ex) Channel your emotions in a
Projection: ascribing undesirable impulses unto others. Ex) Get angry at someone who doesn’t
care about you.
Rationalization: Giving a rational explanation for your behaviour. Ex) I didn’t really want that
thing anyway, or I meant to do that kind of thing.
Intellectualization: uncoupling thought and feeling. Ex) Make sense of the situation in order to
make yourself feel better.
Undoing: Attempts to nullify the thought from your mind in general.
Reaction formation: Converting an unacceptable impulse into its opposite. Ex) Run into your ex
with their new fling, and you pretend to act like the situation is good. Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335
Stages of Psychosexual Development; According to Freud
-Receptive: Too trusting, not competent, dependant
-Aggressive: Envious and Exploitative
-Retentive: Obstinacy, Orderliness, Rigidity, Frugality
-Expulsive: Emotional outbursts, disorganization, generosity, rebelliousness.
-Males: Develop an Oedipus complex that causes them to sexually possess their mother, and
they want to murder the father. They become afraid that the father is going to castrate them for
doing this. You continue this until you are able to grow out of this and put the idea of possessing
your mother out of your head.
-Females: Women develop penis envy and live the rest of their lives wanting to be men.
Problems with these stages
Freud: No significant development in Id impulses of erogenous zone.
Current thinking: Important time, in physical cognitive, social and emotional development.
He only looked at people who possessed psychological illnesses and generalized them to the
Inadequate Proof and Gender Differences:
His Oedipal complex is way too specific and somewhat twisted in a sense to generalize it to all
men and women. Men and Women have two completely different responses.
He only focuses on sex and aggression:
Which is quite limited, in that people’s personalities are not limited to the two.
Freud’s Theories Today: 5 Postualtes
Unconscious processes remain central
Behaviour compromise occurs among conflicting forces
Personality develops across life span; early life is important
Mental representations guide relationships and psychological problems
Attachment Theory Basics
The bond formed between an infant and their primary caregiver is important in determining
mental health. Warm, intimate, and supportive relationships are the best kind.
Impacts emotion regulation, mental health
Internal working model must be created of: Model Relationships, Model of Others [safety, how
others must treat me], model of self Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335
Attachment Levels and Types in Children
Mary Ainsworth, following Bowlby (1978) believed in categories of attachment in infants to see how
they develop over time.
May or may not cry
Greet them or fully approach them
May or may not cry
Little to no eye-to-eye contact at return
3. Anxious /Ambivalent
Distressed by separation
Passive or angry at reunion
Difficult to comfort
There is no organized way to describe the way the child responds to being separated.
Infant Lab: For Testing Behaviour in Children
Aspects of attachment may be transferred to romantic and peer relationships in the future.
o Proximity maintenance, resistance to separation
o Presence of a secure base
o Safe haven associated with an attachment figure
Phase Parents Peers
Early Childhood Safe Haven (Serious Problems) Proximity (Friends, Sleep overs,
Secure Base (Provide Stability) fun, safety)
Late Childhood/ Adolescence Secure Base (Stability, and Proximity, and Safe Haven
home) (They provide you with an
escape, and contact comfort.
Starting to talk about problems
Are Romantic Relationships Attachment Relationships? (Fraley, 2010)
We should see the same attachment patterns
Adult relationships should work on the same ways as an infant caregiver
There should be continuity in attachment style Nicolas Jeganathan 998878335
Chapter 9: Regulation and Motivation; Self-Determination Theory
We want to know what drives people, and how people differ in motivator.
Psychodynamic theories are essentially motivational
Humanistic Tradition in Psych
Reactions to reductionism of behaviour and pessimism of psychodynamics
The person is seen as a system; how it works together in order to make decisions.
Fundamental Psychological Needs
Competence: Feeling you can reliably produce desired outcomes and or avoid negative ones.
You need to understand the relationship between behaviour and its consequences.
o Ex) if they quit smoking, they need assurance that they’re going to have better health.
o They need to be able