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Study Guide for Test 2

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Konstantine Zakzanis

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PSYB32 Textbook Notes II Chapter 6: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension, most common psychological disorder - Anxiety Disorders are diagnosed when subject has feelings of anxiety are clearly present 1) Phobia fear and avoidance of objects or situations that do not present any real danger 2) Panic Disorder recurrent panic attacks involving sudden onset of physiological symptoms, such as dizziness, rapid heart rate, and trembling, accompanied by terror and feelings of impending doom; sometimes accompanied with agoraphobia (fear of public places) 3) Generalized Anxiety Disorder persistent, uncontrollable worry, often about minor things 4) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - the experience of uncontrollable thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) and repetitive behaviours or mental acts (compulsions) 5) Post traumatic Stress Disorder aftermath of a traumatic experience in which the person experiences increased arousal, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, and anxiety in recalling the event 6) Acute Stress Disorder symptoms are the same as those of PTSD but last for four weeks or less Co-morbidity is common due to... 1) Symptoms are various anxiety disorders are not entirely disorder specific 2) The etiological factors that give rise to various anxiety disorders may be applicable to more than one disorder Phobia implies that the person suffers intense distress and social impairment because of the anxiety Prevalence: more in women than men - Claustrophobia fear of closed spaces - Agoraphobia fear of public places - Acrophobia fear of heights - Ergasiophobia fear of writing - Pnigophobia fear of choking - Taphephobia fear of being buried alive - Anglophobia fear of England - Mysophobia fear of contamination and dirt Specific Phobias unwarranted fears caused by the presenceanticipation of a specific object or situation - DSM Subdivided source of fear: o blood, injuries, and injections o situations (ex: planes, elevators, enclosed spaces) o animals o natural environment (ex: heights and water) - Social Phobias - persistent, irrational fears inked generally to the presence of other people Etiology of Phobias - Psychoanalytic theories phobias are a defence against the anxiety produced by repressed id impulses, moved onto an object or situations that has some symbolic connection - Behavioural Theories learning as a way phobias are acquired o Avoidance Conditioning: reactions are learned avoidance responses 1) Classical Conditioning fear a neutral stimulus if paired with a fearfulpainful event 2) Operant Conditioning - escaping from or avoiding CS, the response is maintained by its reinforcing consequence of reducing fear o Modelling Vicarious Learning - learn fears thru imitationobservation of others Anxious-rearing model based on the premise that anxiety disorders in children are due to constant parental warnings that increase anxiety in the child o Prepared Learning fear only certain objects and events (ex: spiders, snakes, heights) Prepared Stimuli certain neutral stimuli that are more likely than others to became classically conditioned stimuli o A Diathesis (predisposition) Is Needed a tendency to believe that similar traumatic experiences will occur in the future may be important in developing a phobia - Behavioural Model of social phobia considers inappropriate behaviour or a lack of social skills as the cause of social anxiety - Cognitive Theories 14.:843K4Z5045O089K4:JK9574.08808.,3807;0,8,L,9K08L8,343 how thoughts can maintain a phobia 1) an attentional bias to focus on negative social information (ex: perceived criticism and hostile reactions from others) 2) perfectionistic standards for accepted social performances 3) a high degree of public self-consciousness (excessive self-focus increase social anxiety) - Predisposing Biological Factors biological malfunction (a diathesis) that somehow predisposes them to develop a phobia following a particular stressful event o Autonomic Nervous System the ease with which their autonomic nervous systems become aroused Stability-Lability Model: Labile = jumpy individuals, readily aroused Autonomic Lability autonomic nervous system involved in fear and phobic behaviour, to some degree is genetically determined, heredity may play a role o Genetic Factors blood-and-injection phobia is strongly familial Therapies for Phobias - Psychoanalytical approaches repressed conflicts - Behavioural Approaches o Systematic desensitization imagines an increasingly frightening scenes while in a state of deep relaxation o In vivio exposure exposure to real-life situations o Virtual reality (VR) exposure just as effective as group cognitive behaviour therapy o Learning Social Skills role-playing o Modelling exposure to feared settings by filmed demonstrations o Flooding - exposed to the source of phobia at full intensity Secondary gain a person with a phobia often settled into an existence in which 49K075045O0.,90794KL8L3.,5,.L9L08L3,Z,70L3147.L3J9K050784385K4-L, - Cognitive Approaches .K,3J05078438L77,9L43,O-0OL018, better than drug treatments o Homework in bw-session learning is considered to be an essential component of CBT - Biological Approaches drugs that reduce anxiety: sedatives, tranquilizers or anxiolytics o Barbiturates first major category, highly addictive present great risk of over dose o Propanediols (ex: Miltown) o Benzodiazepines (ex: Valium and Xanax) - additive + severe withdrawal syndrome o Anti-depressants Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors for treating social phobias Phenelzine (Nardil) weight gain, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, hypertension Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Prozac treat depression Effective but patients may find it difficult to discontinue use, relapse is common Panic Disorder suffers a sudden and often inexplicable attacks Diagnosis: recurrent uncued attacks and worry about having attacks in the future Prevalence: more in women than in men, begins in adolescence, associated with stressful life experiences DSM: can be with or with agoraphobia Comorbid: major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, alcoholism, personality disorders, drug use - Depersonalization 100OL3J41-0L3J4:98L04308-4 - Derealization 100OL3J419K0Z47O8349-0L3J70,O10,7841O48L3J.43974O J4L3J.7,] L3J - cued panic attacks associated strongly with situational triggers - situationally predisposed attacks relationship with stimuli is present but not as strong
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