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Midterm 2 Study Notes.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 MIDTERM #2 STUDY NOTES – CH. 6-8, 10, 14 Chapter 6 Anxiety Disorders - Anxiety o That unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension - Anxiety disorders o Diagnosed when subjectively experienced feelings of anxiety are clearly present o DSM-IV-TR proposes six categories:  Phobias  Panic disorder  Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)  Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)  Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  Acute stress disorder Summary of Major Anxiety Disorders Disorder Description Phobia Fear and avoidance of objects of situations that do not present any real danger Panic disorder Recurrent panic attacks involving a sudden onset of physiological symptoms, such as dizziness, rapid heart rate, accompanied by terror and feelings of impending doom; sometimes accompanied by agoraphobia, a fear of being in public place Generalized anxiety disorder Persistent, uncontrollable worry, often about minor things Obsessive-compulsive disorder The experience of uncontrollable thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) Post-traumatic stress disorder Aftermath of a traumatic experience in which the person experiences increased arousal, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, and anxiety in recalling the event Acute stress disorder Symptoms are the same as those of PTSD, but last for four weeks or less - A high rate of childhood maltreatment has been linked to greater symptom severity and poorer quality of life and function in people seeking treatment for generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) - Often someone with one anxiety disorder meets the diagnostic criteria for another disorder, as well (co-morbidity), with the possible exception of OCD o Symptoms of the various anxiety disorders are not entirely disorder specific o The etiological factors that give rise to various anxiety disorders may be applicable to more than one disorder - Functional MRI and PET studies of PTSD, SAD, and specific phobia have examined responses across three conditions: negative emotion, positive emotion, and neutral conditions - 16% of women and 9% of men suffer from anxiety disorders (mostly women 15-24 years old) Phobias - Psychopathologists define a phobia as a disrupting, fear-mediated avoidance that is out of proportion to the danger actually posed and is recognized by the sufferer as groundless o I.e. extreme fear of heights, closed spaces, snakes, or spiders—provided that there is no objective danger—accompanied by sufficient distress to disrupt one’s life - The term ―phobia‖ usually implies that the person suffers intense distress and social or occupational impairment because of the anxiety - For other phobia disorders, the suffix phobia is preceded by a Greek word for the feared object or situation o Claustrophobia: Fear of closed spaces o Agoraphobia: Fear of public places o Acrophobia: Fear of heights o Ergasiophobia: Fear of writing o Pnigophobia: Fear of choking o Taphenphobia: Fear of being buried alive o Anglophobia: Fear of England o Mysophobia: Fear of contamination and dirt that plagues many people (i.e. Howie mandel) Panic Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Key terms Term Definition Acute stress disorder New in DSM-IV, a short-lived anxiety reaction to a traumatic event; if it lasts more than a month, it is diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder Agoraphobia A cluster of fears centring on being in open spaces and leaving the home. It is often linked to panic disorder Anxiety An unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension accompanied by increased physiological arousal. In learning theory, it is considered a drive that mediates between a threatening situation and avoidance behavior. Anxiety can be assessed by self-report by measuring physiological arousal, and by observing overt behavior Anxiety disorders Disorders in which fear or tension is overriding and the primary disturbance: phobic disorders, panic disorder generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, acute stress disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. These disorders form a major category in DSM-IV and cover most of what used to be referenced to as the neuroses A cognitive preoccupation that involves a fear Anxiety sensitivity of fear itself and thus contributes to a heightened sense of panic Anxiolytics Tranquilizers; drugs that reduce anxiety Autonomic lability Tendency for the autonomic nervous system to be easily aroused Compulsion The irresistible impulse to repeat an irrational act over and over again Depersonalization An alteration in perception of the self in which the individual loses a sense of reality and feels estranged from the self and perhaps separated from the body. It may be a temporary reaction to stress and fatigue or part of panic disorder, depersonalization disorder, or schizophrenia Derealization Loss of the sense that the surroundings are real; present in several psychological disorders, such as panic disorder, depersonalization disorder, and schizophrenia Flooding A behavior therapy procedure in which a fearful person is exposed to what is frightening, in reality or in the imagination, for extended periods of time and without opportunity for escape Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Anxiety that is so chronic, persistent, and pervasive that it seems free-floating. The individual is jittery and strained, distractible, and worried that something bad is going to happen. A pounding heart, fast pulse and breathing, sweating, flushing, muscle aches, a lump in the throat, and an upset gastrointestinal tract are some of the bodily indications of this extreme anxiety Homework Between session learning that typically involves get practice in engaging in specific behaviors or thoughts In vivo exposure An exercise at home that requires the phobic person to be exposed to the highly feared stimulus or situation Obsessions An intrusive and recurring thought that seems irrational and uncontrollable to the person experiencing it Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) An anxiety disorder in which the mind is blooded with persistent and uncontrollable thoughts or the individual is compelled to repeat certain acts again and again, causing significant distress and interference with everyday functioning Panic disorder An anxiety in which the individual has sudden and inexplicable attacks of jarring symptoms, such as difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, dizziness, trembling, terror, and feelings of impending doom. In DSM-IV, it is said to occur with or without agoraphobia Phobia An anxiety disorder in which there is intense fear and avoidance of specific objects and situations, recognized as irrational by the individual Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) An anxiety disorder in which a particularly stressful event, such as military combat, rape, or a natural disaster, brings in its aftermath intrusive re-experiencings of a trauma, a numbing of responsiveness to the outside world, estrangement from others, a tendency to be easily startled, and nightmares, recurrent dreams, and otherwise disturbed sleep Prospective memory The ability to look forward and to remember to perform a required or intended action at the right place or time Retrospective memory The ability to remember recent events and experiences that have already occurred Social phobias A collection of fears linked to the presence of other people Specific phobias An unwarranted fear and avoidance of a specific object or circumstance; for example, fear of nonpoisonous snakes or fear of height Vicarious learning Learning by observing the reactions of others to stimuli or by listening to what they say Virtual reality (VR) exposure A treatment for phobias using computer- generated graphics and sound to construct an experience similar to one that a client fears Chapter 7 Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Key terms Term Definition Anesthesias A loss or impairment of sensation that may be experienced by a person with a conversion disorder Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) A somatoform disorder marked by preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance; for example, facial wrinkles or excess facial or body hair Conversion disorder A somatoform disorder in which sensory or muscular functions are impaired, usually suggesting neurological disease, even though the bodily organs themselves are sound; anesthesias and paralyses of limbs are examples. To be distinguished from malingering, in which actual impairment does not occur Depersonalization disorder A dissociative disorder in which the individual feels unreal and estranged from the self and surroundings enough to disrupt functioning. People with this disorder may feel that their extremities have changed in size or that they are watching themselves from a distance Dissociative amnesia A dissociative disorder in which the person suddenly becomes unstable to recall important personal information to an extent that cannot be explained by ordinary forgetfulness Dissociative disorders Disorders in which the normal integration of consciousness, memory, or identity is suddenly and temporarily altered; dissociative amnesia, dissociative fatigue, dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality), and depersonalization disorder are examples Dissociative fugue A disorder in which the person experiences total amnesia, then moves and establishes a new identity Dissociative identity disorder (DID) A rare dissociative disorder in which two or more fairly distinct and separate personalities are present within the same individual, each with his or her own memories, relationships, and behavior patterns, with only one of them dominant at any given time. Formerly called ―multiple personality disorder‖ Factitious disorder A disorder in which the individual’s physical or psychological symptoms appear under voluntary control and are adopted merely to assume the role of a sick person. The disorder can also involve a parent producing a disorder in a child and is then called ―factitious disorder by proxy‖ or ―Munchausen syndrome by proxy‖ Hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder in which the person, misinterpreting rather ordinary physical sensations, is preoccupied with fears of having a serious disease and is not dissuaded by medical opinion. Difficult to distinguish from somatization disorder Hysteria A disorder known to the ancient Greeks in which a physical incapacity – a paralysis, an anaesthesia, or an analgesia – is not due to a physiological dysfunction; for example, glove anaesthesia. It is an older term for ―conversion disorder.‖ In the late nineteenth century, dissociative disorders were identified as such and considered hysterical states La belle indifférence The blasé attitude people with conversion disorder have toward their symptoms Malingering Faking a physical or psychological incapacity in order to avoid a responsibility or gain an end; the goal is readily recognized from the individual’s circumstances. To be distinguished from conversion disorder, in which the incapacity is assumed to be beyond voluntary control Pain disorder A somatoform disorder in which the person complains of severe and prolonged pain that is not explainable by organic pathology; it tends to be stress-related or permits the client to avoid an aversive activity or to gain attention and sympathy Somatization disorder A somatoform disorder in which the person continually seeks medical help for recurrent and multiple physical symptoms that have no discoverable physical cause. The medical history is complicated and dramatically presented. Difficult to distinguish from hypochondriasis Somatoform disorders Disorders in which physical symptoms suggest a physical problem but have no known physiological cause; they are therefore believed to be linked to psychological conflicts and needs but not voluntarily assumed. Examples are somatization disorder (Briquet’s syndrome), conversion disorder, pain disorder, and hypochondriasis Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders Chapter 8 Mood disorders Key terms Term Definition Altruistic suicide As defined by Durkheim, self-annihilation that the person feels will serve a social purpose (sacrifice), such as the self-immolations practiced by Buddhist monks during the Vietnam War Anomic suicide May be triggered by a sudden change in a person’s relationship to society. A successful executive who suffers severe financial reverses may experience anomie, a sense of disorientation, because what he or she believed to be a normal way of living is no longer possible. Anomie can pervade a society in disequilibrium, making suicide more likely Attribution The explanation a person has for his or her behavior Autonomy A personality style associated with vulnerability to depression. It involves a need to work toward achievement goals while being free from constraint imposed by others Bilateral ECT Electroconvulsive therapy in which electrodes are placed on each side of the forehead and an electrical current is passed between them through both hemispheres of the brain Bipolar I disorder A disorder in which people experience episodes of both mania and depress or of mania alone Bipolar II disorder A disorder in which people experience episodes of major depression followed by a type of manic phase that is less severe than in bipolar I disorder Brooding A moody contemplation of depressive symptoms—―What am I doing to deserve this?‖ – That is more common in females than males Congruency hypothesis The prediction that people are likely to be depressed if they have a personality vulnerability that is matched by congruent life events (I.e. perfectionists who experience a failure to achieve). It is derived from research on personality, stress, and depression Cyclothymic disorder Chronic swings between elation and depression not severe enough to warran
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