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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

SCHIZOPHRENIA KEY TERMS Alogia A negative symptom in schizophrenia, marked by poverty of speech content Anhedonia A negative symptom in schizophrenia in which the individual is unable to feel pleasure Antipsychotic drugs Psychoactive drugs, such as Thorazine, that reduce psychotic symptoms but have long-term side effects resembling symptoms of neurological diseases Asociality A negative symptom of schizophrenia marked by an inability to form close relationships and to feel intimacy Avolition A negative symptom in schizophrenia in which the individual lacks interest and drive Catatonic immobility A fixity of posture, sometimes grotesque, maintained for long periods, with accompanying muscular rigidity, trancelike state of consciousness, and waxy flexibility Catatonic schizophrenia A subtype of schizophrenia whose primary symptoms alternate between stuporous immobility and excited agitation Cognitive enhancement A treatment for schizophrenia that involves therapy (CET) competence-based training in cognitive capacities and skills (i.e., attention, memory, and problem solving) and social-cognitive skills (i.e., conversing with someone) Delusional disorder A disorder in which the individual has persistent persecutory delusions or delusional jealousy and is very often contentious but has no thought disorder or hallucinations Delusional jealousy The unfounded conviction that one’s mate is unfaithful; the individual may collect small bits of “evidence” to justify the delusion Delusions Beliefs contrary to reality, firmly held in spite of evidence to the contrary, common in paranoid disorders: of control, belief that one is being manipulated by some external force such as radar, television, or a creature from outer space; of grandeur, belief that one is an especially important or powerful person; of persecution, belief that one is being plotted against or oppressed by others Dementia praecox An older term for “schizophrenia” chosen to describe what was believed to be an incurable and progressive deterioration of mental functioning beginning with adolescence Disorganized schizophrenia A subtype of schizophrenia in which the person has diffuse and regressive symptoms; the individual is given silliness, facial grimaces, and inconsequential rituals and has constantly changeable moods and poor hygiene. There are a few significant remissions and eventually considerable deterioration. This form of schizophrenia was formerly called “hebephrenia” Disorganized speech (thought Refers to problems in organizing ideas and in disorder) speaking so that a listener can understand. Also known as formal thought disorder Dopamine theory The view that schizophrenia arises from an increase in the number of dopamine receptors Expressed emotion (EE) In the literature of schizophrenia, the amount of hostility and criticism directed from other people to the client, usually within a family Flat affect A deviation in emotional response wherein virtually no emotion is expressed whatever the stimulus, emotional expressiveness is blunted, or a lack of expression and muscle one is noted in the face Grandiose delusions Found in paranoid schizophrenia, delusional disorder, and mania, an exaggerated sense of one’s importance, power, knowledge, or identity Group homes Care facilities in which groups of individuals live semi-cooperatively in one home or facility. Group homes are often recommended for schizophrenics for the social support they provide outside of an institutional setting Halfway houses A homelike residence for people who are considered too disturbed to remain in their accustomed surroundings but do not require the total care of a mental institution Hallucinations Perceptions in any sensory modality without relevant and adequate external stimuli Ideas of reference Delusional thinking that reads personal significance into seemingly trivial remarks and activities of others and completely unrelated events Inappropriate affect Emotional responses that are out of context, such as laughter when hearing sad news Incoherence In schizophrenia, an aspect of thought disorder wherein verbal expression is marked by disconnectedness fragmented thoughts, and jumbled phrases Loose associations In schizophrenia, an aspect of thought disorder (derailment) wherein the client has difficulty sticking to one topic and drifts off on a train of associations evoked by an idea from the past Negative symptoms Behavioral deficits in schizophrenia, such as flat affect and apathy. Contrast with positive symptoms Paranoid schizophrenia A type of schizophrenia in which the client has numerous systematized delusions as well as hallucinations and ideas of reference. He or she may also be agitated, angry, argumentative, and sometimes violent Personal therapy A broad form of cognitive behavior therapy designed to address the numerous factors and processes associated with relapse into schizophrenia (i.e., learning how to respond to expressed emotion with appropriate rather than inappropriate effect) Positive symptoms In schizophrenia, behavioral excesses, such as hallucinations and bizarre behavior. Contrast with negative symptoms Prefrontal lobotomy A surgical procedure that destroys the tracts connecting the frontal lobes to lower centres of the brain; once believed to be an effective treatment for schizophrenia Psychosis risk syndrome Syndrome proposed by DSM-5 work group to identify young people at risk for developing schizophrenia or other psychoses Residual schizophrenia The diagnosis given to people who have ha an episode of schizophrenia but who presently show no psychotic symptoms, though signs of the disorder do exist Schizophrenia A group of psychotic disorders characterized by major disturbances n thought, emotion, and behavior; disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related; faulty perception and attention; bizarre disturbances in motor activity; flat or inappropriate emotions; and reduced tolerance for stress in interpersonal relations. The person withdraws fro people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations Schizophrenogenic mother A cold, dominant, conflict-inducing mother formerly believed to cause schizophrenia in her child Social-selection theory An attempt to explain the correlation between social class and schizophrenia by proposing that people with schizophrenia move downward in social status Sociogenic hypothesis Generally, an idea that seeks causes in social conditions; i.e., that being in a low social class can cause one to become schizophrenic Undifferentiated The diagnosis given for clients whose symptoms do schizophrenia not fit any listed category or meet the criteria for more than one subtype Waxy flexibility An aspect of catatonic immobility in which the person’s limbs can be moved into a variety of positions and maintained that way for unusually long periods of time SUBSTANCE-RELATED DISORDERS KEY TERMS Amphetamines A group of stimulating drugs that produce heightened levels of energy and, in large doses, nervousness, sleeplessness, and paranoid delusions Antabuse A biological drug treatment for drinking problems that cause a person to feel nauseous if he or she drinks alcohol Barbiturates A class of synthetic sedative drugs that are addictive and in large doses can cause death by almost completely relaxing the diaphragm Clonidine An anti-hypertensive drug that shows some promise in helping people wean themselves from substance dependence Cocaine A pain-reducing, stimulating, and addictive alkaloid obtained from coca leaves, which increases mental powers, produces euphoria, heightens sexual desire, and n large doses causes paranoia and hallucinations Conditioning theory of The notion that tolerance and extinction and tolerance learned responses and environmental cues become associated with addictive substances through Pavlovian conditioning Controlled drinking A pattern of alcohol consumption that is moderate and avoids the extremes of total abstinence and of inebriation Convert sensitization Problem drinkers are instructed to imagine being made violently and disgustingly sick by their drinking Cross-dependent Acting on the same receptors as methadone does with heroin Denormalization belief A belief that reflects widespread social disapproval (i.e., society’s current lack of approval of smoking) Detoxification The initial stage in weaning an addicted person from a drug; involves medical supervision of the sometimes painful withdrawal Drug-Stroop task A task to assess implicit cognitions believed to be involve in vulnerability to addiction. The task assesses whether people respond slower when provided with words that they must color identify (i.e., the world is “blue”) but the word reflects drug-related content (i.e., vodka) DTs (delirium tremens) An example of substance withdrawal is alcohol withdrawal delirium, commonly known as the DTs Ecstasy A relatively new hallucinogen that is chemically similar to mescaline and the amphetamines Feedforward mechanisms Anticipatory, regulatory responses made in anticipation of a drug that enables us to anticipate drug effects before they occur Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Retarded growth of the developing fetus and infant; cranial, facial, and limb anomalies; and mental retardation caused by heavy consumption of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy Flashbacks An unpredictable recurrence of psychedelic experiences rom an earlier drug trip Guided self-change An approach to treating addiction and other types of disorders that emphasizes personal responsibility and problem-solving techniques that foster a sense of self-reliance Hallucinogen A drug of chemical whose effects include hallucinations. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD< psilocybin, and mescaline are often called
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