Study Guides (238,368)
Canada (115,110)
Psychology (1,813)
PSYB32H3 (194)

Chapter 4 Practice Exam Questions

29 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 4: Research Methods in the Study of Psychopathology LEARNING GOALS 1. Be able to define science and the scientific method. 2. Be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of correlational and experimental designs. 3. Be able to identify common types of correlational and experimental designs. 4. Be able to describe the basic steps in conducting a meta-analysis. Summary Science and Scientific Methods  Science involves forming a theory and then systematically gathering data to test the theory. It is important for researchers to replicate findings from a given study. Approaches to Research on Psychopathology  Common methods for studying abnormal behavior include case studies, correlational studies, and experimental studies. Each method has strengths and weaknesses.  Clinical case studies provide detailed descriptions of rare or unusual phenomena or novel procedures. Case studies can disconfirm that a relationship is universal and can generate hypotheses that can be tested through controlled research. Case studies, however, may not always be valid, and they are of limited value in providing evidence to support a theory.  Correlational methods are the most common way to study the causes of abnormal behavior because we can not manipulate diagnoses or most of the key risk variables that we believe cause disease.  Conclusions drawn from correlational studies cannot be interpreted in cause-effect terms because of the directionality. Longitudinal studies help address which variable came first, but can still suffer from the third-variable problems.  One form of correlational study, epidemiological research, involves gathering information about the prevalence and incidence of disorders in populations and about risk factors that relate to higher probability of developing a disorder. Epidemiological studies avoid the sampling biases seen in studies of people drawn from undergraduate psychology classes or from treatment clinics.  Studies of behavioral genetics often rely on correlational techniques as well. The most common behavioral genetic methods include the family method, the twin method, and the adoptees method.  In the experimental method, the researcher randomly assigns people to an experimental group or a control group. Effects of the independent variable, or experimental condition, on a dependent variable are then tested. Treatment studies are a common example of experimental research, although some controversy has arisen about the use of placebos. Many different forms of analogue studies are conducted in psychopathology research. Single case experimental designs can provide well-controlled data.  Generally, experimental methods help enhance internal validity, but correlational methods sometimes offer greater external validity. Integrating the Findings of Multiple Studies ● Meta-analysis is an important tool for reaching general conclusions from a group of research studies. It entails putting the result of statistical comparisons into a common format—the effect size—so the results of many studies can be averaged. 1. According to the text, scientific theories should be evaluated according to which of the following two criteria? a. reliability and bias b. realism and external validity c. testability and reliability d. internal validity and explanatory power Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 102 2. “The primary problem is an unconscious anger toward his mother.” What makes this statement unscientific? a. It is not reliable. b. It does not make sense. c. It is not theoretical. d. It is not testable. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 102-103 3. Dr. Puff discovered that hypnosis enabled smokers to quit, but when Dr. Poof tried the same procedure, it did not work. Dr. Puff's finding was not a. reliable. b. valid. c. theoretical. d. testable. Answer: AType: Applied Page: 102 4. Atheory a. is derived from hypotheses. b. is the result of long deliberation by a scientist. c. attempts to explain a class of phenomena. d. All of the above are correct. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 100 5. Agood theory should a. be capable of being proven wrong. b. make sense of obscure phenomena. c. develop directly out of observations. d. explain cause-effect relationships. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 100 6. Which of the following are generated by theories? a. case material b. hypotheses c. statistical significance d. None of the above are correct. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 100 7. Dr. Lee has been treating someone with an unusual combination of symptoms. He notes that there is no published research on such a combination of symptoms, and considers developing a case study. How would Dr. Lee conduct this study? a. Try to find other cases like the one he is treating. b. Gather detailed historical and biographical information on this single individual. c. Examine treatment response using anABAB design. d. Withhold treatment in an effort to fully understand the significance of symptoms. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 102 8. Which research method would be most useful in generating hypotheses about the cause of a newly discovered, rare form of abnormality? a. case study b. correlational method c. experimental design d. single-subject ABAB design Answer:AType: Factual Page: 102-103 9. Case studies can be effective for which of the following purposes? a. Confirming theoretical propositions. b. Generating research hypotheses. c. Demonstrating universal relationships. d. Showing cause-effect relationships. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 102-103 10. Atheorist proposed that anorexia was caused by early childhood sexual abuse. Dr. Firestorm demonstrated that her anorexic patient had never been sexually abused. This is an example of one important use of which method? a. case study b. epidemiological c. correlational d. experimental Answer:AType:Applied Page: 102-103 11. Case studies are not useful in a. providing the means for ruling out alternative hypotheses. b. providing a rich description of clinical phenomena. c. disproving an allegedly universal hypothesis. d. generating hypotheses. Answer:AType: Factual Page 102 12. Which of the following are valid criticisms of the case study method? a. It does not provide the means for ruling out alternative hypotheses. b. It is unable to provide satisfactory evidence for cause-effect relationships. c. The results of a case study are influenced by many factors unique to the subject and the context of the case study. d. All of the above choices are correct. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 102 13. The case, The Three Faces of Eve, was controversial because a. some challenged the existence of multiple personalities. b. the individual in the case offered a different account of her treatment than her doctors. c. it ultimately did not offer much information on multiple personality. d. the case study challenged conventional wisdom on multiple personality. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 104 14. In order to study phenomena and be able to draw broad conclusions, the design with the lowest value in accomplishing this goal is the a. case study method. b. correlational method. c. experimental method. d. longitudinal design. Answer:AType:Applied Page: 103 15. Dr. Bradley has been conducting a case study of Brenda P., a woman with dissociative identity disorder. Which of the following statements by Dr. Bradley is a misuse of the case study method? a. "Brenda, a woman with dissociative identity disorder, was sexually abused as a child. Therefore, all individuals with multiple personality disorder must have been abuse victims." b. "Since Brenda was not sexually abused, the theory that all dissociation is caused by sexual abuse may not be universally true." c. "Brenda was sexually molested as a child. This leads me to hypothesize that perhaps other individuals with dissociative identity disorder were molested as children." d. All of the above are examples of inappropriate uses of the case study. Answer:AType:Applied Page:103 16. Which of the following research methods are best used for only hypothesis generating? a. case study b. epidemiology c. correlational study d. experiment Answer:AType: Factual Page: 103 17. Professor Merrick wishes to study the percentage of men from various social classes who drop out of school. Which of the following methods would be most useful? a. experiment b. case studies c. epidemiological research d. mixed designs Answer: C Type:Applied Page: 108 18. Correlational research differs from experimental research in that correlational research a. is associated with external validity. b. does not involve manipulation of variables. c. relies on significance tests. d. samples large groups of participants. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 105 19. Correlational data would allow one to make which of the following statements? a. "Depression causes weight gain." b. "Weight gain causes people to become depressed." c. "Depression is associated with higher weight." d. "Lack of social support is the root of both depression and weight gain." Answer: C Type:Applied Page: 105-106 20. The more intelligent a person is the higher grades he or she receives in school. Most likely, this finding comes from which type of research? a. case study b. epidemiology c. correlational study d. experiment Answer: C Type:Applied Page: 105-106 21. Professor Jones has observed a correlation between students sitting in the front of the room and getting better grades in her classes. In order to conduct an “experiment” on this, Professor Jones could a. collect data on student study habits. b. assign students randomly to seats. c. adjust her data for overall grade point average. d. obtain similar data from other professors and classes. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 105-106 22. There is no relationship between social class and schizophrenia. What types of research would most likely lead to such a conclusion? a. epidemiological and case study b. epidemiological and correlational c. case study and mixed design d. correlational and experimental Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 105,108 23. If a researcher were to compare the relationship between school grades and conduct problems, then this would be a _________ study. a. case b. correlational c. experimental d. epidemiological Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 105 24. What research design is illustrated by the following? Atherapist gathers data showing that, repeatedly, a patient is better on days his wife visits and worse on days when she does not. a. observation b. correlational method c. single-subject (ABAB) experiment d. longitudinal design Answer: B Type: Applied Page: 105 25. Men and women were compared for their levels of disgust reactions to a gross photograph. This would be a _________ study. a. case b. correlational c. experimental d. epidemiological Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 105 26. Acorrelation coefficient can range in value from a. -1 to +1. b. -100 to +100. c. 0 to 1. d. 0 to 100. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 106 27. Which of the following correlations might have resulted from a study which compared grade point average to hours per week spent partying and which concluded that students who party more get poorer grades? a. + 1.50 b. + .50 c. 0.00 d. - .50 Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 106 28. Which of the following correlation coefficients is plausible for a study which showed that the weight of people’s clothing increases as the temperature decreases? a. r = +.20 b. r = 0.00 c. r = -.20 d. r = -2.0 Answer: C Type:Applied Page: 106 29. Which of the following would likely produce a negative correlation? a. intelligence and grade point averages. b. family income and living in the inner city. c. length of hair and history of child abuse. d. auto accident injuries and blood alcohol level of drivers. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 106 30. Acorrelation of .98 between X and Y would indicate a. virtually no relationship between X and Y. b. a causal relationship, where X causes Y. c. a weak positive relationship between X and Y. d. a strong positive relationship between X and Y. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 106 31. If the correlation between two variables is zero, a. higher scores on one are associated with higher scores on the other. b. they are perfectly related. c. there is no relationship between them. d. they are inversely related. Answer: C Type:Applied Page: 106 32. Dr. Klein found that the correlation between anxiety and an IQ test was exactly zero. This means that a. there was no relationship between IQ and anxiety. b. those scoring highest on anxiety also scored highest on IQ. c. those scoring highest on anxiety scored lowest on IQ. d. the relationship between IQ and anxiety varies depending on the order in which the tests were given. Answer:AType:Applied Page: 106 33. Dr. Hauser hypothesized that depression is related to stress, such that people who are more depressed are also more stressed. Which of the following correlations between depression and stress would best confirm her hypothesis? a. 0 b. .80 c. -.99 d. Correlations can not inform about this type of relationship. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 106 34. When examining a scatter diagram, the ______ degree of scatter of the points, the _______the correlation. a. larger; lower b. larger; higher c. larger; more unstable d. larger; more stable Answer:AType: Factual Page: 107 35. Statistical significance in research suggests the results are a. internally valid. b. externally valid. c. not affected by experimenter bias. d. not due to chance. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 106 36. Saying that a research result is "statistically significant" means that it probably a. has practical applications. b. shows a cause-effect relationship. c. did not occur by chance. d. shows a positive correlation. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 106 37. Which of the following correlation coefficients are most likely to be statistically significant? a. 0 b. 25 c. 70 d. -.85 Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 106 38. Statistical significance is used to evaluate a. the causal relationship between variables. b. the external validity of research results. c. the likelihood of repeating research results. d. the theoretical consistency of research results. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 106 39. The standard for suggesting that a result is statistically significant is if the chances are less than _____ in 100 that it occurred by chance. a. .05 b. 5 c. 10 d. 25 Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 106 40. Dr. Samuelson finds that the relation between level of hopelessness and suicide is .35, and there is a less than 5 in 100 probability that this was found by chance alone. What would be concluded about this correlation? a. It demonstrates that suicide attempts cause hopelessness. b. It is statistically significant. c. It is unreliable. d. It is valid. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 106 41. Which of the following findings is most likely to be statistically significant? a. correlation = .30; sample size = 350 b. correlation = .30; sample size = 20 c. correlation = -.25; sample size = 200 d. Can’t tell from the available information Answer:AType:Applied: Page: 106 42. If a correlation between depressive symptoms and active treatment is clinically significant this means a. the effect is large enough to provide reliability information. b. the effect is large enough to provide meaningful information in predicting or treating depression. c. it is not statistically significant. d. that causation can be implied. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 106 43. Psychopathologists rely upon correlational research since a. it is effective in determining cause and effect. b. many of the variables they wish to study cannot be manipulated. c. ethical considerations prevent them from doing case studies. d. they cannot measure all the constructs. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 105 44. Correlational methods are often used in psychopathology research because psychopathological diagnoses a. are not clear cut. b. may result from third variables. c. have high correlation coefficients. d. cannot be manipulated. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 105 45. Which statement is TRUE regarding correlation? a. Correlation does not imply causation. b. Causation does not imply correlation. c. Both a and b are true. d. Neither a nor b are true. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 107 46. Dr. Fiedler found that people with schizophrenia are more likely to have low socioeconomic status than those who do not have schizophrenia. What can you conclude from this study? a. Poverty is a cause of schizophrenia. b. Schizophrenia leads to poverty. c. Economic reform would reduce the incidence of schizophrenia. d. Schizophrenia and poverty are related. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 107 47. Several studies have found a correlation between schizophrenia and family conflict. Which of the following explanations illustrates the directionality problem? a. The relationship found between schizophrenia and family conflict may not be consistent in different ethnic groups. b. Schizophrenics may be less likely to live with their families. c. Both schizophrenia and family conflict may be caused by low socioeconomic status. d. Family conflict may cause schizophrenia, or schizophrenia may cause family conflict. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 107 48. In correlational studies, it can be hard to show which variable led to a change in the other variable. This is a problem with a. directionality. b. cross-fostering. c. incidence. d. clinical significance. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 108 49. Professor Misha collects data showing a correlation between grades and happiness. He concludes that being happy helps students to get better grades. Which of the following illustrates the "directionality problem" in Professor X's conclusion? a. Students in love may be happier and get better grades. b. Good grades may produce happiness. c. Students with poor grades may drop out of school. d. Female (or male) students may get better grades. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 108 50. Dr. Less collected data showing that depressives were less interested in interacting with nondepressives. She concluded that their depression had caused them to withdraw from nondepressives. However, later research showed that depressives had not interacted with nondepressives even before they became depressed. Dr. Less failed to consider ___________ problems. a. falsifiability b. directionality c. third variable d. internal validity Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 108 51. Directionality is best addressed by a. using a control group. b. using a longitudinal design. c. using a case study. d. using a correlational design. Answer: B Type: Factual: Page: 108 52. You hypothesize that low social class causes poor school grades. You find that the correlation between low social class and school grades is .01. What can you conclude? a. Your hypothesis may be correct, but longitudinal research is indicated to reach a firm conclusion. b. Your hypothesis is probably incorrect. c. Your hypothesis has not been tested, because a correlational study cannot answer questions about cause and effect. d. It is probably poor school grades that lead to low social class. Answer: C Type:Applied: Page 107 53. Ava wants to design a study in which the causes and effects are measured at the same point in time because it is more cost-efficient. This type of study design is called a. longitudinal. b. correlational. c. cross-sectional. d. epidemiological. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 108 54. Farrah is working on a study that selected a group of teenage girls diagnosed with an eating disorder and plans to measure risk variables in this sample repeatedly for the next 25 years. Farrah is most likely working on a study with a a. experimental design. b. correlational design. c. cross-sectional design. d. longitudinal design. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 108 55. When studying the relationship between social class and anxiety disorders, Dr. Stewart follows 50 children whose parents were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder from birth to age 30. This is an example of: a. the experimental method. b. an epidemiological study. c. a behavioral-genetics study. d. the high-risk method. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 108 56. Dr. Hall found a positive correlation between depression and child abuse; depressed mothers were more likely to abuse their children. Which of the following explanat
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.