Chapter 2: Current Paradigms in Psychopathology
1. Be able to describe the essentials of the genetic, neuroscientific, psychoanalytic,
cognitive- behavioral, and diathesis-stress paradigms.
2. Be able to describe the concept of emotion and how it may be relevant to
3. Be able to explain how culture, ethnicity, and social factors figure into the study and
treatment of psychopathology.
4. Be able to recognize the limits of adopting any one paradigm and the importance of
integration across multiple levels of analysis.
Scientific inquiry is limited by scientists’human limitations and by the limited
state of our knowledge: people see only what they are able to see, and other
phenomena go undetected because scientists can discover things only if they
already have some general idea about them.
Aparadigm is a conceptual framework or general perspective. Because the
paradigm within which scientists and clinicians work helps to shape what they
investigate and find, understanding paradigms helps us to appreciate subjective
influences that may affect their work.
Several major paradigms are current in the study of psychopathology and therapy.
The choice of a paradigm has important consequences for the way in which
abnormal behavior is defined, investigated, and treated. The genetic paradigm holds that psychopathology is caused or at least influenced
by heritable factors. Recent genetic findings show how genes and the environment
interact, and it is this type of interaction that will figure most prominently in
The neuroscience paradigm emphasizes the role of the brain, neurotransmitters,
and other systems, such as the HPAaxis. Biological treatments attempt to rectify
the specific problems in the brain or to alleviate symptoms of disorders, often
through the use of drugs.
The psychoanalytic paradigm derives from the work of Sigmund Freud. The more
contemporary contributions of this paradigm are primarily in treatment, including
ego analysis and brief therapy.Although Freud has been criticized, the
psychoanalytic paradigm continues to influence the field by highlighting the
importance of childhood experiences, the unconscious, and the fact that the causes
of behavior are not always obvious.
The cognitive behavioral paradigm emphasizes schemas, attention, and irrational
interpretations and their influence on behavior as major factors in
psychopathology. In both practice and theory, the cognitive behavioral paradigm
has usually blended cognitive findings with the behavioral as a method of
intervention that is referred to as cognitive behavioral. Cognitive behavior
therapists such as Beck and Ellis focus on altering patients’negative schemas and
Emotion plays a prominent role in a number of disorders. It is important to
distinguish among components of emotion that may be disrupted, including expression, experience, and physiology. Emotion disturbances are the focus of
study across the paradigms.
Sociocultural factors, including culture, ethnicity, gender, social support and
relationships are also important in conceptions of psychopathology. The
prevalence and meaning of disorders may vary by culture and ethnicity; men and
women may have different risk factors for different disorders, and social
relationships can be an important buffer against stress. Sociocultural factors are
now being considered in the work of geneticists, neuroscientists, psychoanalysts,
and cognitive behaviorists.
Because each paradigm seems to aid in our understanding of mental disorders, it
is important to develop more integrative paradigms. The diathesis–stress
paradigm, which integrates several points of view, assumes that people are
predisposed to react adversely to environmental stressors. The diathesis may be
genetic, neurobiological or psychological and may be caused by early-childhood
experiences, genetically influenced personality traits, or sociocultural influences
among other things.
1. Paradigms in the study of abnormal behavior
a. increase objectivity.
b. slow innovation.
c. increase confidence in our conclusions regarding mental illness.
d. enable us to gather knowledge in a systematic manner.
Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 29
2. When one chooses a paradigm to understand abnormal behavior, it
a. has little effect on clinical practice. b. leads to an overly narrow perspective.
c. is generally too narrow in focus.
d. specifies problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about investigating
Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 29
3. Contemporary views on genetic and environmental factors in behavior emphasize that
a. genes are important for only some behaviors.
b. a good environment can overcome genetic limitations.
c. both factors influence each other.
d. the percentage of genetic influence on a behavior can be measured.
Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 30-31
4. Psychopathology is polygenic which means that
a. there are several different paradigms to explain abnormal behavior.
b. there are several different paradigms operating at different times during development
that influence genetic vulnerability.
c. the human genome consists of around 30,000 genes.
d. if a person had a gene for x, they will most likely get x.
Answer: B Type: Factual. Page 31
5. If the heritability of ADHD is around .70 then
a.70% of Liam’sADHD is due to genes.
b.30% of Liam’s ADHD is due to genes.
c. Liam’s individual heritability forADHD is .70.
d. In a given population, variation inADHD is attributed approximately 70% to genes
and 30% to environment.
Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 31
6. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Heritability is a population statistic ranging from 0.0 to 1.0.
b. Heritability is the extent to which variability in a particular behavior in a population
can be accounted for by environmental factors.
c. Heritability is a measure of what varies in a population.
d. The higher the heritability statistic, the greater the particular behavior can be accounted
for by genetic factors.
Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 31 7. Research suggests that
a. shared environmental factors is what matters most for understanding genetic variability
b. heritability is what determines a behavior in a population.
c. the effect of nonshared environmental events on siblings is what matters most for
understanding genetic variability among siblings.
d. specific types of events determine genetic variability among siblings.
Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 31
8. One’s inherited genes are referred to as
d. allele types.
Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 31
9. One's observable characteristics are called
c. genetic types.
Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 31
10. Agenotype is illustrated by which of the following?
a. panic disorder
d. None of these
Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 31
11.Aphenotype is illustrated by which of the following?
a. Lisa’s level of anxiety.
b. Lisa’s chromosomes.
c. The genes that code for Lisa’s eye color.
d. Lisa’s DNAstructure. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 31
12. The behavior genetic view suggests which of the following relationships between
genes and abnormal behavior?
a. Genetic predispositions increase the likelihood of abnormal behavior.
b. It is possible and reasonable to manipulate an individual's genes.
c. Twins are more likely to exhibit abnormal behavior.
d. None of these describe the behavior genetic view.
Answer:AType:Applied Page: 31
13. Any measure of intelligence is best viewed as an index of
c. shared environment.
d. unshared environment.
Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 31
14. Turkheimer and colleagues confirmed that
a. heritability for IQ is high.
b. heritability depends upon the environment.
c. achievement is highly heritable regardless of environment.
d. linkage analysis is a sound research method.
Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 32
15. Different forms of the same gene are called
Answer:AType: Factual Page: 32
16. Adifference in DNAsequence that occurs in a population is called
a. an allele.
b. a genotype.
c. a phenotype.
d. a polymorphism. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 32
17. “Knockout studies”
a. are used to learn about mating behaviors in mice.
b. are used to gain a better understanding of DNAsequences.
c. manipulate specific genes and observe the effects on behavior by “removing” certain
genes from mice DNA.
d. manipulate specific genes by inserting artificial hormones into mice DNA.
Answer: C Type: Factual Page 33
18. Which of the following methods of molecular genetics has been used to identify
specific genes on several chromosomes important inAlzheimer’s disease?
a. family studies
b. adoption studies
c. association studies
d. linkage analyses
Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 33
19. Agood method for studying gene-environment interactions is
a. adoption studies.
b. “knockout studies.”
c. association studies.
d. phenotype studies.
Answer:AType: Factual Page: 33
20. Adoption studies are ideal studies for investigating
b. gene-environment interactions.
Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 33
21. The study of the pups born to high LG-ABN mothers or LG-ABN mothers and raised
by high LG-ABN mothers or low LG-ABN mothers provided support for the idea that
a. environments influence the expression of genes in psychopathology.
b. adoption studies are a useful method for understanding genetic markers.
c. environments do not play as important a role as genetics. d. LG-ABN behaviors in mothers are not related to the expression of certain genes in
Answer:AType: Factual Page 34-35
22. Nick was born with a predisposition for aggression and impulsivity which has
resulted in frequent trouble with the law.As a result of time spent in jail, Nick has
developed alcohol dependence. This is an example of
a. linkage analysis.
c. a gene-environment interaction.
d. a reciprocal gene-environment interaction.
Answer: D Type:Applied: Page: 35
23. Areciprocal gene-environment interaction
a. involves the idea that genes may predispose individuals to seek out certain
b. involves how adopted children take on the characteristics of their adopted parents.
c. is a useful research method in adoption studies.
d. suggests that individuals who spends a lot of time in bars are more likely to develop
alcohol dependence than those who do not frequent bars.
Answer:AType: Factual page: 35
24. Amajor current challenge for researchers within the genetic paradigm is to show the
mechanism by which
a. genes for pathology remain after many generations.
b. genes and environments influence each other.
c. genes exert effects on highly complex behaviors.
d. drugs are able to effect genetic predispositions.
Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 35
25. The neuroscience paradigm
a. suggests that genes are responsible for most types of psychopathology.
b. suggests that dopamine is linked to most types of psychopathology.
c. asserts that mental disorders are linked to aberrant processes in the brain.
d. asserts that mental disorders are linked to environmental disturbances.
Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 36 26. Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that
a. allow nerve impulses to reach the next neuron.
b. enable neurons to fire.
c. let neurons adjust their sensitivity to new inputs.
d. adjust the speed of neural transmissions.
Answer:AType: Factual Page: 37
27. The small gap between brain cells that is involved in message transmission is called
Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 37
a. deliver nerve impulse information across the synapse.
b. allow for the detection of brain activity through measures such as EEG.
c. transmit genetic information from parents to offspring.
d. block the flow of information and contribute to behavioral problems.
Answer:AType:Applied Page: 37
29. Neurotransmitters are pumped back into the presynaptic cell by
Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 37
30. According to the neuroscience paradigm, mental disorders are likely the result of
a. an abundance of receptors on the postsynaptic neuron.
b. excesses of different neurotransmitters, such as dopamine.
c. deficiencies in different neurotransmitters, such as serotonin.
d. All of the above are possibilities.
Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 37-38 31. Second messengers play an important role in
a. moderating agonists.
b. moderating antagonists.
c. helping neurons adjust receptor sensitivity.
d. adjusting sensitivity of the thalamus.
Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 38
32. Which of the following mechanisms adjust the sensitivity of postsynaptic receptors to
dopamine, norepinephrine or serotonin?
a. second messengers
d. nerve impulses
Answer:AType: Factual: Page: 38
33. Dr. Arthur and his colleagues are investigating a new drug that stimulates serotonin’s
sensitivity. Dr.Arthur is most likely investigating which kind of drug?
c. second messengers
Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 38
34. Fred is schizophrenic and is taking a medication that works by blocking dopamine
receptors. Fred is most likely taking which kind of drug?
c. second messengers
Answer:AType:Applied Page: 38
35. The major connection between the two hemispheres in the brain is called
a. gray matter.
b. the parietal lobe.
c. the brain stem.
d. the corpus callosum. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 38
36. The gray matter in the brain is made up of
Answer:AType: Factual Page: 38
37. In right-handed individuals, speech is controlled in this area of the brain.
a. corpus collosum
b. left hemisphere of the cortex
c. right hemisphere of the cortex
Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 38
38. The part of your brain cl