Study Guides (238,085)
Canada (114,909)
Psychology (1,813)
PSYB32H3 (194)

Chapter 7 Practice Exam Questions

23 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 7: Stress and Health LEARNING GOALS 1. Be able to distinguish the definitions of stress, coping, and social support. 2. Be able to understand the theories of the stress-illness link, the concepts of allostatic load, and the basic components of the immune system. 3. Be able to describe how psychological factors impact cardiovascular disorders, asthma, andAIDS. 4. Be able to delineate the importance of gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity in health. 5. Be able to describe the major psychological treatments for psychophysiological disorders, including psychological approaches to reduce anger, anxiety, and depression, stress management, and biofeedback. Summary  Psychophysiological disorders are physical diseases produced or influenced in part by psychological factors, including stress, social support, and negative emotions.  Psychophysiological disorders no longer appear as a diagnostic category in the DSM. Instead, the diagnostician can make a diagnosis of psychological factors affecting a medical condition and then note the condition onAxis III. This change reflects the growing realization that life stress is relevant to all diseases and is not limited to those previously considered psychosomatic.  In attempting to understand the complex stress-illness relationship, researchers have focused on precisely defining what stress is, on assessing differences in how people cope with perceived stress, and on how social support impacts the stress- illness relationship.  Theories of the etiology of psychophysiological disorders are diathesis-stress in nature but differ in whether the diathesis is described in psychological or biological terms. Theories positing a biological diathesis emphasize the effects of allostatic load or changes in the immune system that are caused by stress. Theories positing a psychological diathesis focus on such factors as emotional states, personality traits, cognitive appraisals, and specific styles of coping with stress. The most successful accounts of etiology are those that integrate psychological and biological factors.  Cardiovascular disorders, which involve the heart and circulatory system, include essential hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD). While both conditions are complex and multifaceted, their etiologies appear to include a tendency to respond to stress with increases in blood pressure or heart rate.Anger, hostility, cynicism, anxiety, and depression are linked to these conditions.  Individuals with asthma tend to have respiratory systems that overrespond to allergens or that have been weakened by prior infection. Psychological factors such as anxiety, anger, depression, stressful life events, and family conflict may trigger an asthma attack.  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has psychological elements in that it usually arises from behavior that appears irrational and generally is preventable by psychological means. The primary focus of prevention is to change people’s behavior—specifically, to encourage safer sex and to discourage the sharing of needles in intravenous substance abuse.  Because psychophysiological disorders represent true physical dysfunctions, treatment usually includes medication. The general aim of psychotherapies for these disorders is to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, or anger.  Researchers in the field of behavioral medicine try to find psychological interventions that can improve patients’physiological state by changing unhealthy behaviors and reducing stress. They have developed ways of helping people relax, smoke less, eat fewer fatty foods, and engage in behaviors that can prevent or alleviate illnesses, such as encouraging breast self-examination and adhering to medical treatment recommendations.  Stress management interventions help people without diagnosable problems avail themselves of techniques that allow them to cope with the inevitable stress of everyday life and thereby ameliorate the toll that stress can take on the body. 1. Disorders that are physical in nature but worsened by psychological factors are a. conversion disorders. b. psychophysiological disorders. c. somatoform disorders. d. pain disorders. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 189 2. Which of the following views was fostered when DSM began requiring diagnostic judgments of psychological factors affecting medical conditions? a. Certain physical problems are caused by psychological stress. b. Certain psychological problems are caused by physical stress. c.All medical problems may result, in part, from psychological factors. d. All psychological problems may result, in part, from medical factors. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 189 3. Why do psychophysiological disorders NOT appear in the latest DSM? a. They were never included since they are medical conditions. b. They were removed as part of a broader effort to limit the range of diagnoses. c. Psychological factors can influence all medical conditions. d. The disorders were hard to diagnose and widely abused. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 189 4. Charles’hypertension is worsened by chronic anxiety, characterized by tension, palpitations, sweating, and numbness in his limbs. How would his condition be diagnosed in the DSM-IV-TR? a. psychophysiological disorder b. asthma c. psychological factors affecting a medical condition d. Charles’problem would not be diagnosed in DSM-IV-TR: his anxiety is caused by his asthma, which is a physical condition not covered by the DSM. Answer: C Type:Applied Page: 189 5. Which field specifically studies the role of psychological factors in health? a. health psychology b. psychiatry c. clinical social work d. pediatrics Answer:AType: Factual Page: 189 6. When the first semester of their freshman year of university begins, most students would be in this phase of the general adaptation syndrome. a. Alarm. b. Resistance. c. Exhaustion. d. Compensation. Answer:AType:Applied Page: 190 7. The general adaptation syndrome is a model to describe the a. effects of relaxation training on psychophysiological disorders. b. effects of psychological coping on the body's response to stress. c. biological reaction to chronic physical stress. d. effects of autonomic lability on anxiety. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 190 8. The general adaptation syndrome is divided into three stages as follows: a. alarm- resistance- exhaustion. b. stress- coping- recovery vs. disease. c. autonomic reactivity- relaxation- adaptation. d. stressor- arousal- anxiety. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 190 9. “I am stressed when I don’t feel able to manage things.” This definition of stress conflict with the definition used by a. Selye. b. Lazarus. c. the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. d. theAssessment of Daily Experience scale. Answer:AType:Applied Page: 190 10. Mary discusses her job stress with her partner after work. She specifically discusses how the stress from her job makes her feel. This is referred to as a. inward-focused coping. b. outward-focused coping. c. problem-focused coping. d. emotion-focused coping. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 191 11. “Relaxation exercises are the only way I can cope with the stress of graduate school.” This person would be using ___________ coping. a. inward-focused b. outward-focused c. problem-focused d. emotion-focused Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 191 12. Which of the following is an example of emotion-focused coping as a way to deal with the stress of a really difficult test tomorrow? a. Remind yourself that one test will not ruin your career. b. Seek comfort and support from a friend. c. Get your mind off it by going to a movie. d. Stay up all night studying. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 191 13. The most effective type of coping has been found to be a. inward-focused coping. b. problem-focused coping. c. emotion-focused coping. d. None of the above is always most effective; it depends on the situation. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 191 14. Escape/avoidance coping is generally ineffective, except when a. responding to a recent cancer diagnosis. b. coping with the 30 medical school rejection letter. c. coping with a chronic illness such as asthma. d. handling hypertension. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 191 15. Individuals with chronic illnesses would have better functioning if they had a. more spiritual- based coping. b. avoidance coping methods. c. active coping. d. suppression of information related to the illness. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 193 16. Which style of coping is least effective among women diagnosed with breast cancer? a. avoidant b. active c. problem-focused d. use of social support Answer:AType: Factual Page: 192 17. Individuals with elaborate social networks are more likely to develop a. asthma. b. essential hypertension. c. coronary heart disease. d. None of the above; these individuals tolerate stress well. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 193 18. Which of the following types of support is the best for recovery from medical illness? a. structural social support b. functional social support c. general social support d. familial social support Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 193 19. The beneficial effects of social support arise because a. higher social support is associated with more positive health behaviors. b. as social support increases, negative emotions decrease. c. with greater social support, there are fewer stress hormones. d. All of the above are correct. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 193 20. Recent research findings on stress and illness indicate that there is a a. lack of association between stress and illness, contrary to researchers' hypotheses. b. correlation between stress and illness; the causal direction is not known. c. causal relationship between stress and illness; physical symptoms result in stressful life events. d. causal relationship between stress and illness; stressful life events can cause physical symptoms. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 193 21. If the correlation between stress and illness was reliably proven to be 1.0, we would conclude that a. reducing stress in people's lives will probably not result in much decrease in illness. b. factors like coping and social support may in part determine which people become ill when under stress. c. stress may have different physiological effects on different people. d. there is no point in studying factors which protect some people from becoming ill when under stress. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 193 22. From an objective standpoint, Hilda and Edith have the same number of close friends. However, only Hilda feels that she can call on them in time of need, whereas Edith does not feel this way. What could be concluded, on the basis of this information alone, regarding Hilda and Edith? a. Hilda will probably not experience physical illness. b. Hilda will have a better prognosis for recovery from illness than Edith. c. Edith will have a better prognosis because she is more self-reliant. d. Edith will be more likely to suffer from chronic illness. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 193 23. One research study of stress and social support found that college women were less stressed during a difficult task if a. a group of friends cheered them on. b. a male professor assured them they would do well. c. they had just spent time with close friends. d. a friend sat beside them and touched them. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 193 24. The effects of stress are most likely a. direct. b. minimal. c. indirect. d. similar for all people. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 195 25. High stress may result in all of the following except a. increased smoking. b. disrupted sleep. c. altered diet. d. low socioeconomic status. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 195 26. Theories of the stress-illness link all focus on a. physiological mechanisms linking stress and illness. b. differences between desirable and undesirable stress. c. individual differences in vulnerability to stress. d. personality factors that mediate the link. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 194 27. What has research found about the relationship between developing a respiratory illness such as a cold, and stress related to undesirable events? a. Undesirable events increase a few days before getting sick. b. Undesirable events increase while getting sick. c. Getting sick increases awareness of undesirable events. d. There is no clear relationship. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 198 28. The major biological responses to stress involve activation of a. the sympathetic nervous system and HPAaxis. b. the parasympathetic nervous system and HPAaxis. c. the amygdala. d. the HPAaxis. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 195 29. The price the body “pays” if it must constantly adapt to stress can be expressed in terms of a. functional social support. b. cytokines. c. allostatic load. d. stress load. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 196 30. For the past two weeks, Gretchen has been working 16 hours per day on her honors thesis. In addition, she has been responsible for caring for her sick grandmother. Consequently, she has had little time for eating well, exercising, sleeping or seeing friends. As a result, Gretchen’s immune system has weakened and she feels she is going to get sick. One can view this situation as an effect of a. poor nutrition. b. a high allostatic load. c. hypertension. d. cytokines. Answer: B Type:Applied Page: 196 31. Psychoneuroimmunology is a. the study of immune function. b. the study of treatments for immune dysfunction. c. the study of how psychological factors impact health behaviors. d. the study of how psychological factors impact the immune system. Answer: D Type: Factual Page: 196 32. Recent studies of the immune system have concluded that a. a small range of stressors produce problematic changes in the immune system. b. only severe life stressors produce problematic changes in the immune system. c. a wide range of stressors produce problematic changes in the immune system. d. stress is only related to immune functioning when people perceive they have no control over their health. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 196 33. In comparison to younger adults, older adults a. experience more stress. b. are more likely to have their immune system weakened by stress. c. are faster to develop antibodies in response to vaccines. d. experience less stress in reaction to public speaking. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 197 34. Jocelyn has not been feeling well for the past few days. She has a headache, a sore throat and now has a slight fever. Jocelyn should a. immediately seek medical help. b. conclude that her fever signals inefficient immune functioning. c. conclude that she has strep throat. d. rest, and recognize that a fever is actually a sign that her body is responding to an infection. Answer: D Type:Applied Page: 197 35. Antoinette has a ‘bad day.’At the end of the day, it is likely that a. she will have another bad day the next day. b. she will have higher levels of secretory immunoglobulinA. c. she will have lower levels of secretory immunoglobulinA. d. she will have a cold a week later . Answer: C Type:Applied Page: 197 36. Which of the following has been linked to a number of diseases in older adults? a. Having high levels of secretory immunoglobulinA. b. Having high levels of Interleukin-6. c. Having low levels of “anger-in”. d. Having low levels of secretory immunoglobulinA. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 198 37. The first to propose that hypertension was caused by "anger-in" was a. Lazarus. b. Harburg. c. Alexander. d. Rosenman. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 198 38. In Alexander's psychoanalytic theory, psychophysiological disorders develop out of unconscious emotional states a. specific to each disorder. b. rooted in the Oedipal conflict. c. symbolically expressed in physical symptoms. d. breaking through into awareness. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 198 39. The link between optimism and immune functioning in first year law students a. was only found in women. b. was partially mediated by appraisal of stress. c. did not exist once appraisals of stress were considered. d. indicated that optimistic students actually perceived law school as more aversive than pessimistic students. Answer: B Type: Factual Page: 199 40. Essential hypertension a. is higher among whites than blacks. b. occurs in about 10% of college students. c. affects primarily diastolic blood pressure. d. affects physical activity. Answer: C Type: Factual Page: 200 41. Systolic blood pressure is the amount of pressure when a. the heart is pumping. b. the heart is resting. c. the person is in motion. d. the person is in a relaxed position. Answer:AType: Factual Page: 200 42. George was told by his physician that his blood pressure measured 120 over 80. This indicates that a. he has normal blood pressure. b. he has essential hypertension. c. he has hypertension, but t
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.