tb12.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Waldemar Skrobacki

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Import Settings: Base Settings: Brownstone Default Information Field: Difficulty Information Field: Page Information Field: Type Highest Answer Letter: D Multiple Keywords in Same Paragraph: No Chapter: Chapter 12: Substance-Related Disorders Multiple Choice 1. Which is the most serious problem? A) Substance abuse B) Substance dependence C) Substance use D) All of the above are equally serious. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 397 2. Catherine has been unable to obtain crack for several weeks because she has had no money, and so has not taken any for the past month. She went through withdrawal symptoms when she was unable to take her usual dose. She craves the drug all the time and is constantly searching for ways to get some. Her efforts to obtain crack have seriously interfered with her ability to work and take care of her children. This has been going on for couple years. Which of the following DSM-IV diagnoses would best fit Catherine's symptoms? A) Substance abuse B) Substance dependence C) Addiction D) Catherine does not qualify for a DSM-IV diagnosis since she has not used the drug for the past month. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 397 3. Wanda drinks frequently, and now requires much more alcohol than she did six months ago to achieve the same effect. She reports that she can out-drink most people. Wanda is probably A) genetically not predisposed to alcoholism. B) developing a physiological dependence on alcohol. C) acquiring behavioural skills in modulating her drinking. D) deluding herself. This is not physically possible. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 397 4. Carlos suddenly stopped taking amphetamines after prolonged abuse of the drug. He became very ill and died. His death is an example of A) substance dependence. B) substance abuse. C) withdrawal symptoms. D) synergistic effects. Ans: C Difficulty: 3 Page: 397 5. When the ingestion of a substance affects the central nervous system and produces maladaptive cognitive and behavioural effects, the DSM-IV diagnosis is: A) Psychological factors affecting a medical condition. B) Substance dependence accompanied by physiological dependence. C) Substance intoxication. D) Organic substance abuse syndrome. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 397 6. Substance dependence may be distinguished from substance abuse as: A) Substance dependence is associated more with legal trouble because of usage. B) Substance use results in not meeting major obligations. C) Substance dependent users endangers self by driving while under influence. D) Substance dependence is associated with failed attempts to reduce usage. Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 397 7. The Substance-Related Disorders Work Group for the DSM-5 has suggested that: A) Internet addiction be included. B) Pathological gambling be included. C) The term ‘dependence’ be used for physiological dependence only. D) B and C only Ans: D Difficulty: 3 Page: 397 8. The condition known as delirium tremens refers to: A) A symptom of conversion disorder. B) The symptoms that accompany an overdose of heroin. C) The symptoms that may accompany withdrawal from alcohol. D) The hallucinations common in schizophrenia. Ans: C Difficulty: 3 Page: 398 9. The condition known as delirium tremens is due to: A) A sudden drop in alcohol levels in a chronic heavy drinker. B) High doses of alcohol in a person who has not previously drunk heavily. C) High doses of alcohol in a chronic heavy drinker. D) All of the above can cause the symptoms of delirium tremens. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 398 10. Martin et al. (2008) have suggested the following to the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group for the DSM-5: A) There is a quantitative severity distinction rather than qualitative distinction between substance dependence and abuse, so they should be on a continuum. B) They argue that the legal problems criterion is a poor discriminator of substance problem severity. C) The substance use disorder symptoms are best representative of moderate pathology and does not help distinguish mild and severe pathology. D) All of the above Ans: D Difficulty: 3 Page: 398 11. Which Canadian athlete mentioned in your textbook has been know for addiction and behavioural problems? A) John Porter B) James Riley C) Theoren Fleury D) None of the above Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 398 Type: Canadian 12. Which neurotransmitter has been implicated in alcohol tolerance but not in depression? A) Serotonin B) Dopamine C) Norepinephrine D) GABA Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 398 13. Vogel-Sprott and her associates from the University of Waterloo have done extensive research in the area of alcohol tolerance. Her research has shown that A) psychological factors may play a role in the development of tolerance. B) behavioural reinforcement can have a direct influence on tolerance. C) physiological markers of tolerance are difficult to measure. D) A and B Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 398 Type: Canadian 14. Drinking hair tonic is an indication of A) pica. B) eating disorder. C) alcohol dependence. D) psychological factors affecting a medical condition. Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 399 15. Wanda drinks almost a fifth of a gin bottle a day, may remain intoxicated for two or three consecutive days, and takes Valium every night to calm her nerves and get to sleep. Her problem is referred to as A) polydrug abuse. B) synergistic abuse. C) additive drug abuse. D) substance intoxication. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 399 16. Why is it considered particularly dangerous to abuse more than one drug at a time? A) It may lead to taking more dangerous drugs. B) You are more likely to become addicted. C) The interaction of the drugs masks each others' effects. D) The interaction of the drugs produces an especially strong reaction. Ans: D Difficulty: 3 Page: 399 17. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates for alcohol abuse in the U.S. are approximately _____ and _____ respectively. A) 11%; 5% B) 15%; 6% C) 18%; 5% D) 20%; 8% Ans: C Difficulty: 1 Page: 399 18. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates for alcohol dependence in the U.S. are approximately _____ and _____ respectively. A) 10%; 4% B) 12.5%; 4% C) 14.5%; 8% D) 17%; 5% Ans: B Difficulty: 1 Page: 399 19. What percentage of Canadians who are alcohol drinkers engage in hazardous drinking (e.g., drinking and driving)? A) 10% B) 12.5% C) 14.5% D) 17% Ans: D Difficulty: 1 Page: 399 Type: Canadian 20. What did Aase et al. (2008) revealed regarding comorbidity and substance abuse? A) Comorbid psychiatric disorders predicts higher relapse rates. B) Comorbid psychiatric disorders predicts less initial treatment improvement. C) Comorbid psychiatric disorders predicts lower scores on motivation to engage in treatment. D) A and B only Ans: D Difficulty: 1 Page: 399 21. Which of the following have been found to be comorbid with problem drinking? A) Personality disorders B) Schizophrenia C) Suicide D) All of the above Ans: D Difficulty: 3 Page: 399 22. Over the last decade in Canada, alcohol consumption: A) Is on the rise B) Has remained the same C) Has decreased D) Fluctuates year to year Ans: A Difficulty: 1 Page: 399 Type: Canadian 23. According to Thomas et al. (2009), over the last decade in British Columbia, alcohol consumption: A) Has stabilized B) Has doubled C) Has decreased D) Fluctuates year to year Ans: B Difficulty: 1 Page: 399 Type: Canadian 24. Further analyses of the 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey by Stockwell et al. (2009) revealed that ____% of the heaviest alcohol drinkers consumed ____% of the overall alcohol consumption. A) 10; 50 B) 15; 50 C) 17; 55 D) 20; 60 Ans: A Difficulty: 1 Page: 399 Type: Canadian 25. Binge drinking has been defined as A) more than eight drinks in an evening. B) five consecutive drinks for males; four consecutive drinks for females. C) drinking to intoxication. D) drinking until there is temporary memory loss. Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 400 26. What percentage of college-age men in the U.S. engage in binge drinking (5 drinks in a row)? A) 10% B) 30% C) 50% D) 80% Ans: C Difficulty: 1 Page: 400 27. Canadian Alan Marlatt's intervention for heavy drinking A) is a moderation approach that has been found to reduce drinking rates and harmful consequences thereof. B) is a moderation approach that has been found to reduce drinking rates slightly but not the harmful consequences thereof. C) is an abstinence-based approach that has been very successful at reducing drinking rates of heavy drinkers. D) is an abstinence-based approach that has been somewhat successful at reducing drinking rates and the harmful consequences thereof. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 401 Type: Canadian 28. Most recent research on patterns of alcohol use suggests A) drinking is usually heaviest on weekends. B) that alcoholics typically alternate between binge episodes and relatively light drinking. C) that drinking follows well-demarcated stages. D) that there is no single pattern of alcohol abuse. Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 372 29. The 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (Paglia-Boak et al., 2009) revealed that _____ of students in grades 7 to 12 acknowledged binge drinking over the last month. A) 15% B) 25% C) 35% D) 45% Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 401 30. As a group, alcoholics A) have twice the medical expenses of non-drinkers. B) have a higher rate of suicide. C) constitute a large proportion of mental and general hospital admissions. D) All of the above choices are correct. Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 402 31. According to the Canadian division of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, on average, drunk drivers kill approximately ____ people and injure ______ people in Canada every day. A) 1; 25 B) 2.5; 59 C) 3; 92 D) 4; 187 Ans: D Difficulty: 1 Page: 402 Type: Canadian 32. Stewart, Boase, and Lamble (2000) examined 100 Canadian drivers with alcohol-related driving offences and found that: A) The alcohol-related offense was an isolated incident B) Almost half had a history of charges for such things as robbery, assault, and narcotic offences C) Most had above average IQs D) None of the above Ans: B Difficulty: 1 Page: 402 Type: Canadian 33. Alcohol goes into the __________ and is absorbed into the blood, after which it is metabolized by the __________. A) small intestine; kidneys B) small intestine; liver C) stomach; liver D) stomach; kidneys Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 403 34. The initial effect of alcohol is A) depressive. B) sedating. C) anxiety producing. D) stimulating. Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 403 35. Alcohol acts as a _________________ on the central nervous system. A) stimulant B) narcotic C) depressant D) hallucinogen Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 403 36. The effect of small doses of alcohol on anxiety is dependent on A) the amount drunk. B) the sex of the drinker. C) the drinker's expectations. D) whether the drinker is alcohol dependent. Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 373 37. Jose has been told that alcohol makes people aggressive and slows their reflexes. At a party, he drinks a great deal of punch that he believes to contain alcohol; in fact, the punch was non- alcoholic. Late in the evening, a stranger tries to pick a fight with Jose. Which of the following outcomes is most likely? A) Jose ignores the stranger and walks away; since he did not actually drink alcohol, he does not become aggressive. B) Jose gets in a fight with the stranger because he believes he has drunk alcohol. C) Jose is asleep; he is sedated because he believes he is drunk. D) Jose becomes more alert and aware of his heart rate. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 373 38. Heavy drinkers A) suffer malnutrition from reduced food intake. B) suffer malnutrition by alcohol blocking proper absorption of nutrients. C) experience vitamin deficiencies. D) All of the above choices are correct. Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 404 39. Cirrhosis of the liver due to alcohol abuse is characterized by A) liver cells becoming engorged with fat and protein. B) an increased efficiency of alcohol absorption with a corresponding decrease in blood cell reproduction. C) a decreased efficiency in absorption due to liver atrophy. D) None of the above choices are correct. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 404 40. Fetal alcohol syndrome refers to A) alcohol addiction in infants whose mothers drank during pregnancy. B) the theory that alcoholism is transmitted genetically. C) mental retardation in infants whose mothers drank during pregnancy. D) the tendency of alcoholics to regress to very early stages of development. Ans: C Difficulty: 3 Page: 404 41. Pregnant women have been encouraged by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to A) totally abstain from drinking. B) not alter their drinking habits. C) drink one or two drinks a day to help them relax. D) reduce their drinking to no more than several drinks a day. Ans: A Difficulty: 3 Page: 403 42. Interpretation of the research demonstrating links between alcohol use and positive health benefits is complicated primarily by A) the directionality problem. B) the third-variable problem. C) the lack of double-blind studies. D) the lack of control groups. Ans: B Difficulty: 3 Page: 404 43. According to a study by the Canadian Paediatric Society (1998), the peak age of inhalant use in Canada is: A) 10-12 yrs B) 14-15 yrs C) 15-17 yrs D) 18-21 yrs Ans: B Difficulty: 1 Page: 404 Type: Canadian 44. In Canada, which of the following is considered a serious concern among young Native children? A) Gasoline sniffing B) Marijuana use C) Sedative abuse D) Heroin use Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 404 Type: Canadian 45. Inhalant use: A) Is usually just a phase of drug use in young people that does not correlate with other drug use. B) Is correlated with sedative use in Native children. C) Is correlated with adjustment problems. D) Is a serious problem particularly among Francophone youth. Ans: C Difficulty: 1 Page: 405 Type: Canadian 46. The addicting agent in tobacco is: A) Nicotine B) Caffeine C) Tar D) None of the above Ans: A Difficulty: 3 Page: 405 47. Nicotine stimulates A) muscarinic receptors, which are associated with decreased pain perception. B) nicotinic receptors, which in turn stimulate dopamine receptors. C) dopamine receptors directly. D) serotonin receptors. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 405 48. Benowitz (2008) reported that nicotine influences brain receptors to facilitate which the release of _____ neurotransmitter, and thus producing _____? A) dopamine; stimulation and pleasure B) GABA; mood modulation C) endorphins; stimulation and pleasure D) all of the above Ans: A Difficulty: 3 Page: 405 49. Cigarette smoking is more prevalent among A) women. B) the elderly. C) college graduates. D) blue-collar workers. Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 399 50. Nicotine contributes to erectile problems in men by: A) Constricting blood vessels. B) Inhibiting neural pathways associated with arousal. C) Indirectly increasing performance anxiety. D) Increasing blood flow. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 406 51. According to the Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey 2009, the prevalence rate of Canadian smokers is: A) 13% B) 17% C) 20% D) 22% Ans: B Difficulty: 1 Page: 406 Type: Canadian 52. Exposure of a non-smoker to second-hand smoke: A) Is less harmful than smoking because of the lower levels of nicotine and tar in second-hand smoke. B) Has been shown to have far fewer negative effects than the media has suggested. C) Is more harmful to the non-smoker and can lead to lung damage. D) Has negative effects on the fetuses of pregnant non-smokers, but not on the women themselves. Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 406 53. A Canadian study (Vozoris & Lougheed, 2008) found the following regarding second-hand smoke exposure: A) It is linked to asthma and chronic bronchitis in ex-smokers and people who never smoked. B) It is linked to hypertension in ex-smokers. C) It increases the chance of contracting lung cancer by 12%. D) A and B only Ans: D Difficulty: 3 Page: 407 54. Hashish is: A) Derived from resin after smoking marijuana. B) Derived from resin from higher quality cannabis plants. C) Based upon a mixture of marijuana and heroin. D) Milder than marijuana. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 407 55. A longitudinal study (Fried et al., 2002) conducted at the University of Ottawa found that marijuana use has the following impact on users’ IQ: A) It increases IQ by 3.6 points. B) It decreases IQ by 4.1 points. C) It has no impact on IQ. D) It depends on the user’s gender. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 407 Type: Canadian 56. Solowij and Battisti (2008) revealed that long-term or heavy cannabis use is linked to the following effects: A) Impairments in encoding, storage, manipulation of information. B) Reduction in IQ. C) Impairments in retrieval mechanisms. D) A and C only Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 407 57. Schweinsburg et al. (2008) found the following in regard to cannabis use and neurocognitive deficits: A) There are greater deficits among adults who began cannabis use in early adolescence B) Adolescents appear more susceptible than adults to neurocognitive deficits C) Impairments are linked to involvement in harmful behaviour D) A and B only Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 408 58. In a recent review of the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Porath-Waller (2009) concluded the following on chronic cannabis use: A) It contributes to mild impairments rather than severe impairments. B) Impairments are not evident on simple daily tasks. C) Impairments are evident in complex tasks that rely on memory component or strategic planning. D) All of the above Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 408 59. A recent Oslo study (Bretteville-Jensen et al., 2008) showed temporal evidence for the gateway theory in the following manner: A) Soft drugs leading to harder drugs B) Alcohol use leading to cannabis use C) Cannabis use leading to amphetamine D) All of the above Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 408 60. In a study of 36 countries (Smart & Ogborne, 2000), as compared to marijuana use in other countries, Canada A) is a low use country. B) is an average use country. C) is a high use country. D) how it compares depends on what age group you look at. Ans: C Difficulty: 1 Page: 408 Type: Canadian 61. Which of the following statements about the "stepping-stone" theory of drug use is most accurate? A) Most people who use "soft" drugs will move on to try "harder" drugs. B) Most people who use "hard" drugs started out on "softer" drugs. C) There is no difference between "hard" and "soft" drugs. D) There is no relationships between the use of "hard" and "soft" drugs. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 408 62. The Stepping-Stone theory is now referred to as a: A) Network theory B) Multi-determined theory C) Gateway theory D) Correlational theory Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 408 63. What complicates study of the effects of marijuana? A) It contains many compounds. B) Many users are polydrug abusers. C) Effects vary with potency and dose. D) Its problems were recognized only recently. Ans: C Difficulty: 1 Page: 407 64. Regular marijuana use results in: A) Visual processing difficulties. B) Short term memory impairment. C) Decreased attention span. D) Increased agitation. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 407 65. Recent research regarding marijuana has shown: A) That it may be addictive. B) It is not addictive. C) There are clearly withdrawal symptoms. D) It is not as dangerous as previously believed. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 409 66. A Vancouver research study (Tan et al., 2009) regarding the combined use of marijuana and tobacco has shown: A) A substantial increase in respiratory symptoms and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease B) Increase in respiratory disease among those who have smoked 50 marijuana joints in their lifetime C) No tangible differences in the number of respiratory symptoms and chronic pulmonary disease D) A and B only Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 409 67. Which of the following was found in the Ontario Mental Health Supplement survey about Canadian marijuana users? A) It takes between 100 to 199 uses of marijuana by males for it to be termed pathological. B) The risk of pathology was greater if the user began using after the age of 17. C) The threshold for use to become pathological was higher for females than for males. D) A and C Ans: A Difficulty: 1 Page: 409 Type: Canadian 68. What psychological effect is common to both marijuana and alcohol? A) Impaired memory B) Impaired driving skills C) Increased relaxation and sociability D) All of the above Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 403, 409 69. Smoking marijuana has been shown to A) elevate heart rate, posing a risk to those with abnormal heart function. B) cause fatal heart attacks in healthy young men. C) lead to hypertension. D) have no significant effect on the cardiovascular system. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 409 70. Studies of addiction to marijuana have indicated that use of the drug A) leads to physical dependence stronger than that of nicotine. B) leads to tolerance. C) leads to reverse tolerance. D) both choices B and C are correct Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 409 71. The benefit of marijuana when used for chronic illnesses is primarily A) to reduce nausea for patients undergoing chemotherapy. B) to increase immune function. C) to improve attention and maintain medication adherence. D) to prevent additional infection. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 410 72. One major caution in taking marijuana for therapeutic reasons is A) the highly addictive features of the drug. B) the rate at which one develops tolerance for the drug. C) decreased immune functioning. D) difficulties associated with withdrawal. Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 410 73. Heroin is classified as a A) hallucinogen. B) sedative. C) stimulant. D) barbiturate. Ans: B Difficulty: 3 Page: 410 74. Which drug produces euphoria, drowsiness, reverie, and sometimes a lack of coordination? A) Cocaine B) Heroin C) LSD D) Amphetamines Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 411 75. Mark is experiencing the following symptoms after taking a drug: he feels an initial rush of ecstasy, has great self-confidence and has lost all his worries and fears. At the same time, he is feeling drowsy and relaxed. Which of the following drugs is Mark most likely to have taken recently? A) Heroin B) Alcohol C) Marijuana D) Cocaine Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 411 76. After the effects of heroin wear off, the user typically A) feels drowsy. B) becomes extremely hungry. C) experiences a letdown, often almost a stupor. D) a heightened sense of awareness. Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 411 77. George is experiencing symptoms similar to a bad flu; he is sneezing, sweating, tearful, yawns frequently, and has muscle pain. Which of the following drugs is he most likely withdrawing from? A) Alcohol B) Heroin C) Cocaine D) Amphetamine Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 411 78. What change in prevalence of heroin has occurred in recent years? A) Increased primarily among the urban poor B) Increased primarily among well educated people C) Decreased primarily among women D) Decreased dramatically across most groups Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 382 79. Which of the following is true about heroin and cocaine use in Canada? A) Vancouver has the highest per capita rate of hospital deaths related to these drugs. B) Around 2 percent of university students have used such drugs. C) Approximately 5 percent of Montreal street youth report using heroin every day. D) All of the above Ans: D Difficulty: 1 Page: 411 80. A major change in the form heroin is obtained in recent years is A) that it is now more pure. B) that it is more likely to be mixed in with other drugs, such as marijuana. C) that it is now a capsule. D) that it is now as a tablet. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 412 81. Heroin addiction and crime are thought to be highly correlated because: A) The drug causes loss of a moral sense, and sociopathy develops. B) Criminals are more likely to become drug addicts than non-criminals because of their association with people in the "black market" drug trade. C) Addicts commit crimes in order to raise money to buy drugs. D) Addicts do not actually commit more crimes, but are arrested more often because their behaviour while on the drug is disruptive. Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 412 82. Sedatives most likely affect A) norepinephrine levels. B) the GABA system. C) dopamine receptors. D) muscarinic receptors. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 412 83. Amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine fall under which class of drugs? A) Sedatives B) Stimulants C) Hallucinogens D) None of the above Ans: B Difficulty: 1 Page: 412 84. According to a study on the consumption of caffeinated drinks among Canadian undergraduates (Graham, 1988), the best predictors of consumption and caffeine dependence were: A) Drinking for the purpose of relief from aversive states. B) Drinking for stimulation. C) Drinking for sociability and affiliation with others. D) A and B Ans: D Difficulty: 1 Page: 413 Type: Canadian 85. Heinz et al. (2009) developed the 37-item Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire and thus tapped into factors reflecting people’s expectations about the effects of caffeine. What are those factors? A) Withdrawal symptoms and positive effects B) Acute negative effects and mood effects C) “Caffeine helps me relax” and “I will get a headache if I don’t drink coffee” D) All of the above Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 413 86. Cocaine is classified as a A) sedative. B) stimulant. C) barbiturate. D) hallucinogen. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 413 87. Tim works at a law firm where he is expected to bring in a large number of cases each week. He has been working at this job for five years, typically putting in 70 hours a week. He has begun to experience irritability, and has begun to drink alcohol in the evening in order to get to sleep. Based on this information, if he were taking any other drug, it would most likely be A) sedatives. B) amphetamines. C) hallucinogens. D) pain killers. Ans: B Difficulty: 3 Page: 412 88. Jolynn took a drug that caused the following symptoms: she felt wide awake and friendly, and had no interest in lunch despite not having eaten since the night before. After taking a second dose of the drug, she became nervous and confused, and developed a severe headache. Which of the following drugs did Jolynn probably take? A) Alcohol B) Marijuana C) a barbiturate D) An amphetamine Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 412 89. Which of the following are withdrawal symptoms from caffeine? A) Headaches B) Anxiety C) Fatigue D) All of the above choices are correct. Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 413 90. Mescaline is obtained: A) By a chemical procedure that can only be done in a lab. B) From a cactus plant. C) By combining two hallucinogenic drugs. D) None of the above choices are correct. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 414 91. Mescaline is a form of A) marijuana. B) cocaine. C) hallucinogen. D) Ecstasy. Ans: C Difficulty: 3 Page: 414 92. The drug, Ecstasy, is a relatively new form of: A) Stimulant. B) Barbiturate. C) Hallucinogen. D) Marijuana. Ans: C Difficulty: 3 Page: 415 93. After taking a particular drug, Hal began feeling that time was passing very slowly, and he began having profound thoughts about the nature of time and the universe. While this experience was at first deeply moving, leading to feelings of elation, Hal's mood quickly changed to intense anxiety and near panic. What drug did Hal probably take? A) Marijuana B) LSD C) Heroin D) Cocaine Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 414 94. Flashbacks following LSD use are caused by A) drug induced changes in brain structures. B) LSD released from storage in cells. C) personality variables render user susceptible. D) none of the above; the cause is unknown. Ans: D Difficulty: 1 Page: 415 95. Heatherton and Sargent (2009) found that adolescents who have high exposure to smoking in movies, as compared to adolescents with low exposure, are: A) Four times more likely to try smoking or become smokers B) Three times more likely to try smoking or become smoker C) Two times more likely to try smoking or become smoker D) None of the above Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 416 96. Heatherton and Sargent’s (2009) findings of high exposure to smoking in movies on adolescents has led researchers to: A) Advocate that movie producers be educated on the effects of smoking in movies on youth B) Advocate that parents be educated on the effects of smoking in movies on their children C) Advocate that movies involving smoking be automatically R-rated D) All of the above Ans: C Difficulty: 2 Page: 416 97. Research has suggested that in cultures or social contexts where heavy drinking is considered normal A) alcoholism is less common. B) alcoholism is more common. C) women are less likely to become alcoholic than women in cultures where drinking is discouraged. D) men in the lower social classes are more likely to become alcoholic. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 416 98. The Ontario Health Survey's recent analysis of family factors in drug abuse indicated that future investigations A) should be extended to look at the role of siblings. B) should control for mediating factors like parental abuse. C) should use a longitudinal design. D) None of the above. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 417 Type: Canadian 99. The Ontario Health Survey found that in terms of their effect on the substance use of younger brothers and sisters, siblings' substance use A) doesn't have as much effect on them as does the parents' substance use. B) has more of an effect on them than does the parents' substance use. C) is often related to comorbid behaviour problems and substance use in the younger siblings. D) has a greater effect in Native Canadian families who are more interdependent than in Caucasian families who are more independent. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 417 Type: Canadian 100. Why was the manufacturer of Camel cigarettes asked to stop running ads featuring "Joe Camel?" A) They were considered false advertising because of their claims that smoking in moderation is not harmful to health. B) They were felt to be aimed at encouraging minors to smoke. C) They were found to violate free speech laws. D) They were felt to be leading to higher smoking rates among older adults, who are most prone to develop smoking-related health problems. Ans: B Difficulty: 2 Page: 417 101. A meta-analysis of 17 studies (Lac & Crano, 2009) with over 35,000 participants confirmed that: A) Adolescent perceptions of greater parental monitoring are linked reliably with less marijuana use. B) Adolescent perceptions of greater parental monitoring are not linked reliably with less marijuana use. C) Adolescent perceptions of greater sibling monitoring are linked reliably with less marijuana use. D) None of the above. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 417 102. The two psychological dimensions that Cox and Klinger (1988) say motivate drinking are A) valence of reinforcement and locus of reasons. B) positive-internal and negative-external. C) costs and benefits. D) approach-avoidance and locus of control. Ans: A Difficulty: 1 Page: 418 Type: Canadian 103. If a drug is used largely because it decreases a negative mood, then the psychological effect of that drug is considered A) negatively reinforcing. B) positively reinforcing. C) non-addictive. D) a mood stabilizer. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 418 104. Although it has been shown that alcohol does not have a consistent effect upon stress, people continue to drink as a means to alleviate stress because A) they expect it to help. B) others suggest drinking to unwind. C) drinking is more socially acceptable than consuming other drugs. D) they are unaware of the severity of life stress they are experiencing. Ans: A Difficulty: 2 Page: 418 105. Grant et al. (2007) developed an five-factor motive scale for alcohol consumption and found that: A) People have coping-anxiety motives B) People have coping-depression motives C) People have socially reinforcing motives D) A and B only Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 418 106. In studying drinking motives, Goldstein and Flett (2009) found that: A) Some people drink for both coping and enhancement motives B) People who drink for coping motives and those who drink for enhancement motives have similar personality features C) People who drink for multiple motives could be at greater risk for problem drinking D) All of the above Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page: 418 107. In terms of expectancies about the effects of alcohol, Canadian researchers Paglia and Room (1999) found that A) most people believe that alcohol has a greater effect on themselves than on others. B) most people believe that alcohol has a greater effect on others than on themselves. C) negative expectancies are stronger predictor
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