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Study Guide for the Final Exam

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology Final Exam Notes Chapter 12: Substance-Related Disorders - Use of drugs falls into 2 categories = substance dependence and substance abuse - Substance dependence = more serious - needs three symptoms: o Tolerance = 1) larger dose of drug needed to produce desired effect, 2) effect of drug lessens if usual amount taken o Withdrawal = negative physicalpsych effects when stop taking drugreduce amount J can use drug to relieveavoid withdrawal symptoms o Use more drug or for longer time than intended o Z }2L]Z}2L} Z2 L[J RARE o A lot of time spent to get drug or to recover from its effects o Drug use continues despite problems it can cause o Try to give upcut back in many activities in life because of drug use - Substance dependence = addiction if tolerance or withdrawal present - Physical dependence on drug = more severe problems - Substance abuse = less serious J need one symptom: o Fail to fulfill major obligation J e.g. neglect child, work o Exposure to physical danger J e.g. drunk driving o Legal problems J e.g. spouse abuse o Persistent socialinterpersonal problems J e.g. argue, public intoxication - Substance intoxication = ingestion of drug affects CNS J maladaptive cogbehaviour effect - Delirium tremens = substance withdrawal symptom Alcohol AbuseDependence - Abuse = excessive and harmful use of alcohol, negative socialoccupational effects - dependence = show tolerancewithdrawal - Withdrawal symptoms )L]}Z7ZZ7l7ZoZZ7 L[Zop, muscle tremors, high blood pressure (=bp) and temp, sometimes delirium tremens if blood alcohol drops suddenly, hallucinations (tactile, visual), look feverish, disoriented, paranoid - Tolerance because of changes in liver enzyme efficiency and CNS implication J changes to #sensitivity of GABA receptors - J]Zo Z]L Z ]]}L]LZ}KLoZZ} }KLZ}o }Z}o[Z]LZ]]} in brain J stop drinking = inhibitory effects lost and therefore feel overexcited - Polydrugpolysubstance abuse = use and abuse more than one drug at a time o 80-85% drunks are also smokers J nicotine and alcohol are cross-tolerant o Can be harmful J e.g. alcohol and barbiturates can make people suicidal - Prevalence = 20% men, 8% women J declines with age - Alcohol = 4 leading cause of disability by WHO and 4 times more likely to use health services and medical expenses twice as high - Absorption of alcohol fast but removal is slow - Effects depends on = concentration in blood, amount ingested at a time, presenceabsence of food in stomach, body size, and liver efficiency www.notesolution.comPSYB32: Abnormal Psychology - Alcohol stimulates GABA = reduces tension and increases serotonin and dopamine = pleasurable - Short-term effects = slurred speech, decrease anxiety, more social, relax, more aggressivesexual - Long-term effects = malnutrition (B-complex vitamins),amnestic syndrome, loss of memory, liver cirrhosis, damage endocrine glands, pancreas, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, capillary hemorrhages, swellingredness in face, brain cell damage in temporal lobes - Fetal alcohol syndrome = heavy drinking in pregnancy J cranial, facial, and limb anomalies o Partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder Inhalant Drug Use - Sniff glue, correction fluid, spray paint, cosmetics, gas, aerosol sprays, nitrous oxide of whipped cream cans - High in Natives - Cause damage to CNS J headaches, nausea Nicotine and Smoking - Nicotine stimulates nicotinic receptors in brain J activates dopamine neurons in mesolimbic area - Female smokers have greater changes in cog activity after smoking - Causes death in 15 Americans and most preventable cause of premature death - Medical problems = lung cancer, emphysema, larynx cancer, esophagus cancer, CVD - Harmful components = nicotine, CO, tar (carcinogens) - Men more likely to smoke, many Natives smoke - Second-hand smoke = environmental tobacco smoke J has more ammonia, CO, nicotine, and smoke that actually inhaled by smoker Marijuana - Driedcrushed leaves of hemp plant = cannabis sativa - Hashish = stronger mj J removedry resin exudates of tops of high-quality cannabis - 1 used to treat rheumatism, gout, depression, cholera, neuralgia - Effect depends on potency and size of dose - Feel relaxed, more social, emotion shifts, dull attention, fragmented thoughts, impaired memory, hallucinations, paranoidpanic - Active chemical in mj = THC J more THC = more potent - Type of anandamide = bliss in Sanskrit - Short-term memory loss because activates cannabinoid receptors in hippocampus - Short-term effects = bloodshotitchy eyes, dry mouththroat, munchies, less pressure in eye, raised bp - Mj much more detrimental to health than tobacco (4x tar, 5x MO, 10x cell damage in airways) - May experience reverse tolerance because THC is stored and released in small quantities - Used for therapy = in cancer patients with nausea and loss of appetite, for AIDS discomfort, glaucoma, epilepsy, ms, and medical usage for pain and nausea Sedatives - Sedatives = downers J slow bodycog activity and reduce responsiveness - Opiates = relieve pain and induce sleep o Opium = from poppy
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