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Study Guide for Final

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Textbook Notes III Chapter 12: Substance-Related Disorders Substance Dependence (accompanied by addiction physiological dependence) DSM requires at least 3 of the following: - Tolerance o Larger doses of the substance being needed to produce the desired effect o The effects of the drug becoming markedly less if the usual amount is taken - Withdrawal symptoms of negative physical and psychological effects develop when the person stops taking the substance or reduce amount o The person may also use the substance to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms o Delirium Tremens (DTs) withdrawal delirium, visualtactile hallucinations - The person uses more of the substance or uses it for a longer time than intended - The person recognizes excessive use of the substance; he may have tried to reduce usage but has been unable to do so - :.K419K050784389L20L885039L30114798944-9,L39K08:-89,3.04770.4;071742L980110.98 - Substance use continues despite psychological or physical problems caused by the drug - The person gives up or cuts back participation in many activities because of use of the substance Substance Abuse - Failure to fulfill major obligations - Exposures to physical dangers - Legal problems - Persistent social or interpersonal problems Substance Intoxication - When ingestion of a substance affects the central nervous system and produces maladaptive cognitive and behavioural effects Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Poly-drug (poly-substance) abuse using or abusing more than one drug at a time - Synergistic effects of each combine to produce an especially strong reaction (alcohol and barbiturates is a common means of suicide) Prevalence: more in men than women, alcohol dependence declines with age Comorbidity: mood and anxiety disorders, other drug use, schizophrenia Short Term Effects of Alcohol: - Vary with the level of concentration of drug in bloodstream - Depends on the amount ingested in a particular period of time - Presence or absence of food in the stomach to retain the alcohol and reduce its absorption rate - $L]0415078438-4 - Efficiency of liver - Biphasic effect in small amounts drinker experiences sociability, larger amounts can act as a depressant that may lead to negative emotions, interfere with complex thought processes Long Term Effects of Alcohol: - Biological damage and psychological deterioration: o Malnutrition drinkers reduce food intake, reduce vitamin intake (B-complex vitamins) o Cirrhosis of the liver blood flow obstructed o Damage to endocrine glands and pancreas, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, capillary haemorrhages, swelling and redness of nose, reduce immune system function, o Fetal alcohol syndrome growth of fetus is slowed, cranial, facial and limb abnormalities www.notesolution.comInhalant Use Disorders - Ex: glue, correction fluid, spray paint, cosmetics, gasoline, aerosol sprays - Sniffing (nasal inhalation), huffing (small rag stuffed in mouth), bagging (plastic bag) - Inhalants acts as depressants, similar to alcohol and sedatives, feelings of euphoria and psychic numbing but can cause damage to central nervous system, headaches and nausea Nicotine and Cigarette Smoking - Nicotine addicting agent in tobacco, stimulates nicotinic receptors in brain, dopamine in mesolimbic area - Even the first puff can be addictive - Female smokers have greater changes in cognitive activity after nicotine exposure Prevalence: more men than women, Aboriginal, less educated Consequences: destruction of lung tissue irreversible Second-hand smoke (aka environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): contains higher concentrations of ammonia, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar Marijuana - Marijuana consists of dead and crushed leaves and flowering tops of the hemp plant Cannabis - Hashish much stronger than marijuana, is produced by removing and drying the resin exudates of the tops of high-quality cannabis plant - Major active chemical is THC, cannabinoid receptors in brain Effects of Marijuana - Psychological Effects relaxed, sociable, o larger doses reported to bring rapid shifts in emotion, to dull attention, fragmented thoughts, impaired memory, time seems to move slowly, o extremely large doses may induce hallucinations, effects similar to LSD, extreme panic - Somatic Effects o Short term: bloodshot and itchy eyes, dry mouth and throat, increased appetite, reduced blood pressure within the eye and somewhat raised blood pressure, elevates heart rate o Respiratory disorders, impaired immune system functioning, o Reverse tolerance T+.,3-0709,L30L3-481,999L88:0 - Therapeutic Effects o THC can reduce nausea and loss of appetite that accompanies chemotherapy for cancer Sedatives (aka downers) slow activities of the body and reduce its responsiveness - Opiates addictive sedatives that relieve pain and induce sleep when taken in moderate doses - Opium the plant of joy, poppy - Morphine raw opium, powerful sedative and pain reliever - Heroin more addictive and more potent than morphine, acting more quickly and with greater intensity Effects of Opium and its Derivatives - Psychological and physical effects o Produce euphoria, drowsiness, daydream and lack of coordination o Heroin has additional initial effect: rush, feeling of warmth, ecstasy immediately following an intravenous injection o Shed of worries and fears, has greater self-confidence but then experiences a crash - Synthetic Sedatives o Barbiturates aids for sleeping and relaxing (Ex: Valium, Methaqualone) o Sedatives relax muscles, reduce anxiety and in small doses produce a mild euphoric state, with excessive doses speech becomes slurred, gait unsteady, judgement impaired, o Delirium and convulsions similar to alcohol withdrawal
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