Study Guides (247,998)
Canada (121,216)
Psychology (1,882)
PSYB32H3 (195)

Study Guide for Final

13 Pages
Unlock Document

Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Textbook Notes III Chapter 12: Substance-Related Disorders Substance Dependence (accompanied by addiction physiological dependence) DSM requires at least 3 of the following: - Tolerance o Larger doses of the substance being needed to produce the desired effect o The effects of the drug becoming markedly less if the usual amount is taken - Withdrawal symptoms of negative physical and psychological effects develop when the person stops taking the substance or reduce amount o The person may also use the substance to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms o Delirium Tremens (DTs) withdrawal delirium, visualtactile hallucinations - The person uses more of the substance or uses it for a longer time than intended - The person recognizes excessive use of the substance; he may have tried to reduce usage but has been unable to do so - :.K419K050784389L20L885039L30114798944-9,L39K08:-89,3.04770.4;071742L980110.98 - Substance use continues despite psychological or physical problems caused by the drug - The person gives up or cuts back participation in many activities because of use of the substance Substance Abuse - Failure to fulfill major obligations - Exposures to physical dangers - Legal problems - Persistent social or interpersonal problems Substance Intoxication - When ingestion of a substance affects the central nervous system and produces maladaptive cognitive and behavioural effects Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Poly-drug (poly-substance) abuse using or abusing more than one drug at a time - Synergistic effects of each combine to produce an especially strong reaction (alcohol and barbiturates is a common means of suicide) Prevalence: more in men than women, alcohol dependence declines with age Comorbidity: mood and anxiety disorders, other drug use, schizophrenia Short Term Effects of Alcohol: - Vary with the level of concentration of drug in bloodstream - Depends on the amount ingested in a particular period of time - Presence or absence of food in the stomach to retain the alcohol and reduce its absorption rate - $L]0415078438-4 - Efficiency of liver - Biphasic effect in small amounts drinker experiences sociability, larger amounts can act as a depressant that may lead to negative emotions, interfere with complex thought processes Long Term Effects of Alcohol: - Biological damage and psychological deterioration: o Malnutrition drinkers reduce food intake, reduce vitamin intake (B-complex vitamins) o Cirrhosis of the liver blood flow obstructed o Damage to endocrine glands and pancreas, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, capillary haemorrhages, swelling and redness of nose, reduce immune system function, o Fetal alcohol syndrome growth of fetus is slowed, cranial, facial and limb abnormalities www.notesolution.comInhalant Use Disorders - Ex: glue, correction fluid, spray paint, cosmetics, gasoline, aerosol sprays - Sniffing (nasal inhalation), huffing (small rag stuffed in mouth), bagging (plastic bag) - Inhalants acts as depressants, similar to alcohol and sedatives, feelings of euphoria and psychic numbing but can cause damage to central nervous system, headaches and nausea Nicotine and Cigarette Smoking - Nicotine addicting agent in tobacco, stimulates nicotinic receptors in brain, dopamine in mesolimbic area - Even the first puff can be addictive - Female smokers have greater changes in cognitive activity after nicotine exposure Prevalence: more men than women, Aboriginal, less educated Consequences: destruction of lung tissue irreversible Second-hand smoke (aka environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): contains higher concentrations of ammonia, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar Marijuana - Marijuana consists of dead and crushed leaves and flowering tops of the hemp plant Cannabis - Hashish much stronger than marijuana, is produced by removing and drying the resin exudates of the tops of high-quality cannabis plant - Major active chemical is THC, cannabinoid receptors in brain Effects of Marijuana - Psychological Effects relaxed, sociable, o larger doses reported to bring rapid shifts in emotion, to dull attention, fragmented thoughts, impaired memory, time seems to move slowly, o extremely large doses may induce hallucinations, effects similar to LSD, extreme panic - Somatic Effects o Short term: bloodshot and itchy eyes, dry mouth and throat, increased appetite, reduced blood pressure within the eye and somewhat raised blood pressure, elevates heart rate o Respiratory disorders, impaired immune system functioning, o Reverse tolerance T+.,3-0709,L30L3-481,999L88:0 - Therapeutic Effects o THC can reduce nausea and loss of appetite that accompanies chemotherapy for cancer Sedatives (aka downers) slow activities of the body and reduce its responsiveness - Opiates addictive sedatives that relieve pain and induce sleep when taken in moderate doses - Opium the plant of joy, poppy - Morphine raw opium, powerful sedative and pain reliever - Heroin more addictive and more potent than morphine, acting more quickly and with greater intensity Effects of Opium and its Derivatives - Psychological and physical effects o Produce euphoria, drowsiness, daydream and lack of coordination o Heroin has additional initial effect: rush, feeling of warmth, ecstasy immediately following an intravenous injection o Shed of worries and fears, has greater self-confidence but then experiences a crash - Synthetic Sedatives o Barbiturates aids for sleeping and relaxing (Ex: Valium, Methaqualone) o Sedatives relax muscles, reduce anxiety and in small doses produce a mild euphoric state, with excessive doses speech becomes slurred, gait unsteady, judgement impaired, o Delirium and convulsions similar to alcohol withdrawal
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.