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PSYB32 Exam guideline *For Ch6,7,9,10,11*

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 EXAM GUIDELINE Lecture 5: Chapter 7: Somatoform and dissociative disorders - Inter-rater reliability is poor, culture plays a moderating roles - Only pain disorder with both psychological factors and a general medical condition will be diagnosis because pain is a subjective experience and have no test thus we can never know whether it is a psychological or physical. - Pain disorders are often co-morbid with substance abuse e.g. pain killers, anxiety, and depression - These patients are reinforced and develop into iatrogenic disability; reinforcement of being disabled - Typically women suffer from body dysmorphic disorders than men, and will be more specific - It is important to know that patients, who suffer from body dysmorphic disorders (BDD), often have obsessive compulsive personality disorder characteristics. They are obsessed with looking at their defective reflection in mirror. Usually begins in late adolescence or adulthood - Depression, social phobia co-morbit because imagine defect and not want to be in public, or sad about defects - They usually meet the criteria of a delusional - 5% of the population might have hypochondriacs, and is chronic. Depression and anxiety is highly co-morbit - Hypochondriacs have shifting complaints, believe they have a specific disorder - Somatization disorder patients have symptom complaints, more often in women and runs in families (20%) - Depression and anxiety is highly co-morbit along with substance abuse and histrionic personality disorder, and conversion disorder - Conversion disorder, may have Phonia(lost of voice), Anosmia (lost of smell), symptoms appear suddenly as a result of a stressor - Malingering is when the person is consciously faining/faking impairment in the context of external incentive such as insurance check or getting out of military - Factitious disorder is when the patient intentionally faining/faking impairment without external incentive - Conversion disorder is when the impairment is unconscious - Munchausen Biproxy: When a person causes a family member illness in order to care for; conscious complaints - Dissociative disorders are rare and do not know the cause - Dissociative amnesia is usually time locked which means it lasts for a period of time and goes away suddenly like the onset usually after a stressful event - Sodium amatol: truth serum, relaxes unconscious guard - Dissociative fugue, even more uncommon, 0.2% prevalence in population - Fugue is brief in duration, occurs after severe stressor, rare that it will recur again after recovery - Dissociative disorders usually have acute onsets - 1.3% prevalence of D.I.D. but commonly misdiagnosis of being borderline or schizophrenia (vice versa). - Begins in childhood or adulthood - There are gaps in between memories of separate egos - DID is chronic and severe causing disability Chapter 6: Anxiety Disorder - Anxiety disorders are the most common, 31% lifetime prevalence - Co-morbidity amongst the different anxiety disorders are high because symptoms are not disorder specific e.g. elevated heart rate may be a symptom for OCD and GAD, causes/etiology may be applicable to more than one disorder - Claustrophobia: fear of enclosed spaces - Agoraphobia: fear of open spaces with a lot of people - Xenophobia: fear of strangers - Phobia: comes from Greek work of being afraid - Specific phobia is more prevalent in women - Categories of specific phobia: objects, situation, animals, natural environment - Social phobia is more disabling than specific phobia - Generalized or specific qualifier of social phobia. Women have a higher probability (11 vs. 15% lifetime prevalence) - Panic attacks can occur to any one of the anxiety disorders - Systematic desensitization- Joseph Walt - Flooding: forcing the patient into the phobia - GAD is always there - GAD: 5% prevalence, underestimate - OCD, compulsions are not pleasant Guest Speaker: Chris Rodregious; Gestalt Psychologist - Integrated therapist, using variety of approaches - Excitement and anxiety have the same physiologic reactions, the difference is how you interpret it - View from a holistic approach, addresses what is happening in the moment not the past or future - Brings into awareness discrepancies in the persons presentation (e.g. someone who is crying but says she feels great) - Gestalt is bringing someone into congruent with the presentation and acceptance of self awareness - It includes the neurosis, as a necessary element in the change process - How the individual resist contact in the here and now or how they resist change is the rich resource from which the therapist draws interventions. - Perls basic premise was that life happens in the present not in the past or the future and that when we are dwelling on the past or fantasizing about the future we are not living fully. Through living in the present we are able to take responsibility for our responses and actions. To be fully present in the here and now offers us moreexcitement, energy and courage to live life directly - It is based on a need cycle, sensation, awareness, mobilization of energy, excitement, action, contact, withdrawal(only when satisfied) - Neurosis interrupts the cycle and results in unfinished business - Anxiety is an essential expression of being alive and anxiety is the beginning of feeling (of whats going to happen) - If the excitement is blocked because of beliefs or interruptions, excitement becomes anxiety and build up and become chronic - The holding or stuck of the cycle is a mechanism to protection against emotion - Anxiety holds in emotion - Sensory sensation, learn to be highly aware of yourself - Paradoxical theory of change: the more you try to become something, the less of it you become Lecture 6: Chapter 10: Mood Disorders - Cognitive biases: - Arbitrary inference: where the individual will draw conclusions without evidence. For example, associate feelings with reality and thoughts to your relationship to the external world - Selective abstraction: conclusion drawn from only one of the elements from a situation, an element you choose to focus on. For example, focus on less positive aspects of a situation and create negative conclusions from that. - Overgeneralization: overall sweeping conclusion based on a single trivia event. Everyone
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