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chapter notes for midterm 2 (22 pages of solid notes)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Somatoform is quite common and dissociate is actually the rarest. Anxiety is the underlying factor to both somatoform and dissociative. Somatoform disorders are characterized by physical symptoms that have no known physiological causes. The symptom is not under voluntary control, it is unconscious. Dissociative disorders is when an individual experiences disruptions of consciousness, memory, and identity. Somatoform Disorders Pain disorder psychological factors play a significant role in the onset and maintenance of pain. Iatric disability the belief that one is disabled when they are not for the sake of attention and benefits that comes with being disabled. Body dysmorphic disorder preoccupation with imagined or exaggerated defects in physical appearance. Co-morbid with depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and social phobia. Hypochondriasis preoccupation with fears of having serious illness. Once you are a hypochondric, you probably will be it for the rest of your life. Treatment is hard to come by. Conversion disorder sensory or motor symptoms without any physiological cause. Anaesthesias lose or impairment of sensations. Aphonia loss of voice Anosmia loss or impairment of the sense of smell. Conversion derived from Freud who thought that the anxiety and psychological conflict were believed to be converted into physical symptoms. Hysteria term originally used to describe what is known as conversion women and their wandering uterus. Conversion co morbid with depression, substance abuse, and personality disorders such as borderline and historionic personality disorders. Somatization disorder know the difference between this and conversion disorder. Characterized by recurrent, multiple somatic complaints, with no apparent physical cause. 4 pain symptoms in difference locations, 2 gastrointestinal symptoms, 1 sexual symptom other than pain, 1 pseudoneurological symption (overlap with conversion). Symptoms usually cause impairment, usually regarding work. www.notesolution.comIf someone only has pseudoneruolgical symptom, they have conversion disorder. Etiology of Somatoform Disorders Etiology of Somatization disorder Behaviour view of somatisation disorder holds that the various aches, discomforts, and dysfunctions are the manifestation of unrealistic anxiety of bodily systems. In keeping with the possible role of anxiety, patients with somatisation disorder have high levels of cortisol, and indication that they are under stress. Pyschoanalytic Theory of Conversion Disorder Breuer and Freud proposed that a conversion disorder is caused when a person experiences an event that creates great emotional arousal, but the affect is not expressed and the memory of the event is cut off from conscious experience. The specific conversion symptoms were said to be related casually to the traumatic event that preceded them. Research shows that people with hysterical blindless was affected by the stimuli even when they denied seeing them. Behavioural theory of conversion disorder - They view conversion disorder as similar to malingering in that the person adopts the symptom to secure some end. In their opinion, the person with a conversion disorder attempts to behaviour according to his or her conception of how a person with a disease affecting the motor or sensory abilities would act. 1) are people capable of such behaviour ?yes. 2) under what conditions would such behaviour be most likely to occur? The patient must have some experience with the role to be adopted and the enactment of a role must be rewarded. Social and Cultural factors in conversion disorder conversion disorder is more common among people with lower socio-economic status and from rural areas. Biological factors in conversion disorder genetic factors do no seem to be important in the development of conversion disorder. Conversion symptoms are more likely to occur on the left side of the brain. Therapies For somatoform Disorders hard to treat. Visit physicians more than psychologists because they define their problems in physical terms. Effective treatment tend to have the following ingredients validating that the pain is real and not just in the patients head, relaxation training, rewarding the person for behaving in ways inconsistent with the pain. Lecture stuff
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