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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 12 Substance Related Disorders Symptoms of substance dependence (at least three of the following)- tolerance either by larger doses of the substance being needed to produce the desired effect or the effects of the drug becoming markedly less if the usual amount is taken, withdrawal symptoms negative physical and psychological effects develop when the person stops taking the substance or reduces the amount, person uses more substance or uses it for a longer time than intended, person recognizes excessive use of substance, much of the persons time is spent trying to obtain substance or recover from its effects, substance use continues despite problems, person gives up or cuts back participating in many activities because of substance Substance dependence is diagnosed as being accompanied by physiological dependence if either tolerance or withdrawal is present. Substance dependence is more severe and dangerous than substance abuse. Symptoms of substance abuse failure to fulfill major obligations, exposure to physical dangers, legal problems, and persistent social or interpersonal problems. Alcoholism Delirium tremens (DTs) withdrawal symptoms. When the alcohol in the blood levels drop suddenly, the person will enter a delirium state. This can determine the difference between alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse. Alcohol dependence is DTs exist. Polydrug (polysubstance) abuse using or abusing more than one drug at a time. Most drinkers also smoke. Prevalence of alcohol abuse more men drink more alcohol. Declines with age. It does seem that users tend to go from alcohol abuse to alcohol dependence. There is however no single pattern of alcohol abuse. Jellinek describe male alcohol abuse passs through 4 stages, beginning with social drinking and progressing to a stage at which he lives only to drink. Comorbidity comorbid with personality disorders and also depression (people use alcohol to help them with depression) Short-term effects of alcohol effects of alcohol varies depending on the concentration in the blood and that depends on body mass, amounts of time that the alcohol is ingested, and the efficiency of the liver, and the presence or absence of food in the system. Most of the alcohol goes into the small intestines where it is absorbed into the blood, excess of the www.notesolution.comamount stay in the bloodstream if it cannot be broken down in the liver. Absorption can be fast, but removal can be slow. It has a biphasic effect initial effect of alcohol is stimulating the drinker experiences an expansive feeling of sociability and well-being as the blood alcohol level rises but after the blood alcohol level peaks and beings to decline, alcohol acts as a depressant that may lead to negative emotions. It stimulates GABA receptors, which may be respsonsible for reducing tension. Also increases levels of serotonin and dopamine, and this maybe be the source of pleasurable effects. Long-term effects of prolonged alcohol abuse dementia, liver failure. Also malnutrition (alcohol has alot of calories with no nutrients). Heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy is the leading cause of mental retardation (fetal alcohol syndrome). Light drinking (fewer tahn three drinks a day), especially of wine, has been related to decreased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Inhalant Use Disorders substances such as glue, correction fluid, spray paint, cosmetics, gasoline. They are dangerous because they are inexpensive and readily available. Nicotine and Cigarette Smoking nicotine is the addicting agent of tobacco. It stimulates receptors, called nicotinic receptors, in the brain. Studies who nicotine has high reinforcing efficacy. Addcitive effects of nicotine start very shortly after ones first puff. Prevalence and health consequences of smoking smoking is the single most preventable cause of premature death. Health risks of smoking are significantly less for cigar and pipe smokers because they seldom inhale the smoke into their lungs. Destruction of lung tissue is not reversible. Cigarette smoking can contributes to erectile problems in men. Consequences of second hand smoke - second hand smoke (environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)) contains higher concentrations of ammonia, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar than does the smoke actually inhaled by the smoker. Marijuana consists of the dried and crushed leaves and flowering tops of the hemp plant, CANNABIS SATIVA. Hashish much stronger than marijuana, is produced by removing and drying the resin exudates of the tops of high quality cannabis plants. Hemp plant was used for cloth and rope instead of smoking. Effects or marijuana: Psychological effects time moves by really slowly, more relaxed, more sociable, feeling paranoid. Major active chemical in marijuana is THC and that is what causes the kind of reaction you will get. Somatic effects increases appetite, red eyes, dry mouth and throat, somewhat raises blood pressure, short term memory loss. One marijuana cigarette is the equivalent of
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