ch. 10 - intelligence

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chandan Narayan

Chapter 10: intelligence and achievement Theories of Intelligence To form useful theories of intelligence, scientists focused on 3 issues: Whether intelligence is unitary or multi-faceted Whether it is determined by genetic or environmental factors Whether is predicts academic success and success outside school The factor analytic approach In the earlier days it was believed that intelligence is a unitary or single ability that affects everything a person does so to test this idea, researchers did a factor analysis on intelligence test performances of large samples of ppl Factor analysis: a statistical procedure used to determine which of a number of factors or scores are both closely related to each other and relatively independent of other groups of factors or scores Charles spearman said that intelligence is made up of 2 factors: A General factor (g): general mental energy or ability thats involved in all cognitive tasks A person with a high (g) would be expected to do generally well on all tasks a number of Specific factors (s): factors that are unique to particular cognitive tasks Variations in performance on different tasks could be because of the different amounts of (s) factors Lewis thurstone said that theres 7 skills that make up intelligence: Verbal meaning, perceptual speed, reasoning, number, rote memory, word fluency, and spatial visualization So kids differ in overall level of intellectual ability and in how skilled they are in specific aspects of cognitive functioning The information-processing approach: Sternbergs triarchic theory Triarchic theory of intelligence: a theory that proposes 3 major components of intelligent behaviour: information-processing skills, experience with a particular situation, and the ability to adapt to the demands of a context. The 3 components work together to organize and guide intelligent behaviour. Information-processing skills needed to encode, store and retrieve different kinds of information Experience considers how much exposure and practice an individual has had with a particular intellectual task Context recognizes that intelligence cant be separated from the situation in which its used. Because ppl must function effectively in many different environment, they must be able to adapt to the requirements of a situation and to select and arrange situations to meet their own abilities and needs Successful intelligence: Sternberg expanded his triarchic theory into this one. The ability to fit into, mould, and choose environments that best fulfill the demands of ones society and culture and ones own needs and desires (includes analytical, creative, and practical abilities Analytic abilities includes those taught and tested in most schools and universities such as reasoning about the best answer to a test question Creative abilities involved in devising new ways of addressing issues and concerns Practical abilities used in everyday activities such as work, family life. Practical knowledge we use is tacit Tacit knowledge (aka common sense): implicit knowledge thats shared by many ppl and that guides behaviour Its not explicitly formulated and its rarely taught directly to kids instead its learned by observing others When triarchic theory is applied to class setting, it may benefit kids learning and
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