ch 11 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chandan Narayan

Chapter 11: The family Socialization: the process by which parents and others ensure that a childs standards of behaviour, attitudes, skills, and motives conform closely to those deemed appropriate to her role in society The family system Parents influence their kids but their kids also influence them and play a role in their own socialization Families dont function in isolation; theyre influenced by the bigger physical, cultural, social and historical settings and events around them Families are not static; they change over time The ecological System perspective the view of family as an interdependent system that functions as a whole has 2 principal origin: o the realization by psychotherapists that to change the behaviour of a troubled child, one usually has to change the family system also AND o bronfendbrenners ecological theory this looks at the relations between the child and the system within which he develops and also with the relations among these systems according to the dynamic systems theory, the family system is: o complex and organized o it has an ongoing identity of its own o although it maintains a certain stability over time, it has to be capable of morphogenesis- adapting to changes both within the system and outside of it o it has equifinality as time goes by-developing many similarities with other system like it, even though such systems (ex. families in different cultures) may express these similarities in different way 2 other principles that govern system functioning are: o Interdependency which explains why the functioning of the family system is not always smooth. Cuz each family member and family subsystem influences and is influenced by each other member and subsystem, both cooperative behaviour and hostileanit-social behaviour may have a big effect on the system as a whole Parents who have a good relationship with each other are more likely to be caring and supportive with their children and in turn are likely to be cooperative and responsible Parents who are unhappy with their marriage may be irritable with their children, and the children may show anti-social behaviour and in turn intensify problems in the parents relationship o Families tend to get equilibrium or homeostasis, in their functioning and to become resistant to forces that might change this balance However, resistance to change can prevent parents or other family members from recognizing problems and can cause members to blame all family difficulties on one child, who becomes a scapegoat for everyone else. Families have boundaries that vary in how permeable or vulnerable they are to outside influences o A well functioning family tends to have a permeable boundaries that allow members to maintain satisfying relationships within and outside the family itself o If families are too rigidly bounded, members may have a hard time disengaging appropriately from the family ex. in adolescence, when starting uni, when marrying, making use of resources outside the family. Such families may have few positive community contacts and supports and be more likely to see their children in a negative way and to be punitive and inconsistent with them ex. families whose boundaries are too permeable can be vulnerable to
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