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psyb20 finals.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Diane Mangalindan

Psyb20 ch6reflex smilenewborn smile bc of internal stimulus suych as change of arousal not external stimulistart to smile to external stimuli between 38wks smiles begin from eyes then mouth then whole faceafter 3 months they start to smile selectively to familiar facesduchenne smilesspecial smiles of babies to mom4 years oldstart laughingsroufe2 phases of fear3 months oldinfants become wary when encounter unfamiliar events that they cant assimilate79 months oldinfants show true fear4 monthssmile less at unfamiliuar people but show great interest in new people5 monthsreplaced by giving stranger sober stare6 monthssober expressiondistress79 monthsshow clear signs of fear of strangers strangers distresssocial referencingreading soc cueslearn to act accordingly in the situaiton such as in presence of stranger and caregiverseparation protestagainst separation from caregiver around 15 monthsanger and sadness2months to 3 months start to reliably display facil exp for this47 years old at least half displaying anger based on genetic maturational factors4homesicknesschild copes in 2 waysprim ctrlchikld thinks he can changeand has control to change situationsec ctrlbelieves self doesnt really have control so feel helpless and depressed so try to change self or behaviour to adaptaccommdate to situationrelinquish ctrlgive upseek solace in exp sadness via crying or soc isolation etcsecoindary emotions AKA self conscious emosreq ability todifferntiate and integrate roles of multiplefactors in situiation incld roleof personal respoinsibilityndEmerge in mid of 2 yearpride and shamefor 7 years old any good outcomeproudfor 1018 can discriminate between effort and luckchance and only effortproudguilt6 year old doesnt know action relations to personal responsibility even when they have little control over outome ofa situation simple outcomes9 year old and older children focus on role of personal responsibility that they caused the outcomejealousystarts as young as 1younger children displays distress older displays sadness and angercaues less ability to focus on play activiesprevlanace in faily depends on relationships between parents and between siblings and caregivers such as whether its a secure relationshgip or notdisplay rules of emotionsrules when appropriate to display an emotionshown in children at 2cultural values determine how children from various cultures actemo scriptsenales chld to ID what emo reaction to accompany a sort of event5 yearsunderstand onoly situations with emo with facial display anger or sadness7 yearsmore complicated wihtout facial like pridejealousy etc1015 years can descrivbe relief and disappointmentharterage 46conceive 1 emo at once thinks cant have 2 at onceage 68conceive 2 emos of same type occuring tgt Ie happyproudage 89describe 2 distinct emos in response to diff situations in same time Ie bored bc nothing to domad bc mom hit meage 102 opposing eelings where events are diff of same situaiton Ie sit in sch worry abt nxt gamehappy got Aage 11understand same event can cause opposite feelingstheories of attachmentpsychoanalytic theoryfreud babies become attached first to moms breaststo mom as source of oral graiticationrecent work tries to combine related disciplines with this for a better explanationleraning theoryinfants become attached bc she prov foodprim refinrceomentmom becomes secondary reinforcer person w reinforcing properties bc association with a prim reinforcer foodchallenged bc some researchers say food isnt critical for attachment dev
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