B20 ch 11 notes

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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20ch 11 Socializationprocess ensuring that their childs standard of behavior attitudes skills and motives conform as closely as possible to those regarded as desirable and appropriate to her role in society The family systemparents influence and direct their children but their children also influence them and play an active role in their own socialization families are influenced by the larger physical culturalsocial and historical settings and events around them families are not static they change over timeThe ecological systems perspective contexts in which children are embedded play an important role in the developmental trajectories system is a complex and organized it has an ongoing identity of its own it maintains a certain stability over time and it must be capable of morphogenesis which is adapting to the changes both within and outside the sytem It must demonstrate equifinality as time goes by developing many similarities with other systems like it but expressing the similarities in diff ways interdependency each fam member and family subsystems influences and is influenced by each other member and subsystem families attain homeostasis where they become resistant to forced that might alter thebalance adaptability is the central criterion of a well functioning family resistance to change can prevent parents or other fam members from recognizing problem and cause members to blame all fam difficulties on one child who becomes the scapegoat for everyone else families have boundaries which vary in how permeable or vunerable they are outside influences well functioning family allows member to maintain satisfying relationships both within and outside the family itself families whose boundaries are too permeable can be vulnerable to disruptions by external forcesThe marital system the nature of the partners relationship with one another has impact on the children satisfactory to both partners facilitates effective parenting good sibling relations and healthy development of all familys childrenhow does marital relationship affect children partners offer emotional and physical support they will provide the same for their children shared parenting allows for better relationships with children cooperate in caring for their children also help each other shoulder some of the special burdens new parents experience help each other help the child conflict between parents has been found to reflect insecure attachments of children to both parents fathers who had and angry and withdrawn style of dealing with disputes had children who were more likely to be depressed than other children indirectly effects when marriage difficulties cause parents to change their child rearing practices directly children are witness to arguments handle disputes constructively they show children the right way and reduce harm to child they can model healthy conflict negotiation couples themselves tend to be more negative in disputes in the presence of child boys are much more susceptible to the negative effects than girls parents are less likely to argue in front of girls more protecting of daughters than sonsImpact of a new baby on the martial system presence and behavior of a child influences the marital relationship marital satisfaction declines more markedly in woman than in men after birth first child gradually fathers become more aware of the restrictions a baby impose on their lives kids who are temperamentally difficult or handicapped n some way may often contribute to heightened family stress the birth of a child rarely destroys a good marriageThe parentchild system individual children may develop very differently within the same family situationHow parents socialize children socialiazation begins at birth becomes more conscious and systematic as he child achieves greater mobility and begins to use formal language teaching their children social rules and roles parents rely on several learning principles they can use reinforcement where they explain acceptable standards then praise of discipline according to if the child behaves appropriately or not they may also teach by modeling behaviors they want children to adopt this could occur by chance however or the modeled behavior may not always be what they want to produce parents also manage aspects of their childrens environment that will influence their social development they choose neighborhoods and home they may decorate the childs room with female or men colorsDimensions of prenatal behavior emotionality warm responsive parents or rejecting and unresponsive control very demanding of their children restricting their behavior or they may be permissive and undemanding pretty much allowing the child to do as they wish
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