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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20ch 12How peer interactions begin developmental patterns Infancy first social encounters first 6 months they touch and look at each other and as responsive to each others behavior second half of life infants begin to recognize a per as a social partner show the ability to interact in groups and to be involved with more than one person at the same time they develop competence in interacting with peers they shift toward increased social play and exhibit a clear preference for playing with peers rather than adults mothers tend to bear the larger responsibility for maintaining the interaction whereas in exchanges between infants and peers the 2 partners contribute more equallySocial exchange among toddlers when children engage in positive social interactions they are more likely to smile or laugh or display other kinds of appropriate positive affect and their interactions lasts longer the complexity of toddle play increases over age p469 table 121 solitary play and parallele play diminish as the child grows older and associative and cooperative play both increase in frequency as well as some 4 yr olds are still engaging in solitary play while some precocious 25 yr olds are busily in cooperative play bouts negative exchanges and conflict increase as well toddlers who frequently initiate conflicts with peers were also the most sociable and the most likely to initiate interactions relationship two ppl share an ongoing succession of interactions that continues over time and affects each other both their history of past interactions and their expectations of future interactions influence the nature and course of events children between ages of 1 and 2 develop preferences for particular playmates early social choices of special friends are not temporary most last over a year and they are not just limited to dyadsPreschool and elementary school society over time children spend more hours with child companions and fewer with adults at adolescence spend less time with family more with friends mostly in US compared to east age 34 children choose same and opposite sex companions but after they prefer same sex companionsgirls have cooties adolescence is cross genderHow do peers help to socialize children peers offer a perspective quite different from the fams peers can influence through reinforcement modeling social comparison and provding opp for learning and socializing Modeling behaviors
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