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Ch3detailed chapter notes i used these to study and did well on the exams

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Mark Schmuckler

Chapter 3Prenatal Development and Birth Stages of Prenatal Development9 months of prenatal development is characterized in 2 ways o 3 trimesters o 3 periods zygote embryo fetusZygote developing organism from the time of the union of the sperm and the egg to about the nd2 week of gestation the period of the zygote is comprised on the implantation of the fertilized egg in the wall of the uterusFirst 2 weeks of lifePsysiological dependence ndth Embryo developing organism between the 2 and 8 weeks of gestation the period of the embryo comprises the differentiation of the major physiological structures and systems o Period of rapid growth rdtho Beginning of 3 week of gestation to the end of the 8 week o Gestation carrying of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy usually for 9 months in humans o 3 crucial structures develop to protect and support the growing lifeAmniotic sac membrane containing a watery fluid that encloses the developing organism protecting it from physical shocks and temperature changesPlacenta fleshy disclike structure formed by cells from the lining of the uterus and from the zygote and that together with the umbilical cord serves to protect and sustain the life of the growing organismUmbilical cord tube that contains blood vessels that carry blood back and forth between the growing organism and its mother by way of the placenta it carries oxygen and nutrients to the growing infant and removes carbon dioxide and waste products Final length is a little longer than the infant o The inner mass of the developing organism differentiates into 3 layersEctoderm mesoderm and endodermFrom the ectoderm the hair nails and part of the teeth the outer layer of the skin and skin glands and the sensory cells and nervous system developThe mesoderm forms into the muscles skeleton circulatory and excretory systems and inner skin layerThe endoderm develops the gastrointestinal tract trachea bronchia Eustachian tubes glands and vital organs such as lungs pancreas and liver o The embryo is the most susceptible to any harm in this stage o If neural folds dont close it can result in spina bifidaa disorder in which the spinal cord and the membranes that protect it may protrude from the spinal column o Prenatal development is guided by 2 principlesCephalocaudal and proximaldistal
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