ch.5 detailed textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Chapter 5Childs Growth Brain Body Motor Skills and Sexual Maturation Brain Development in InfancyUp to now there s really very little in our theories of development that rely on some specific aspect of the developmental patter of brain growthBrain grows rapidly in prenatal period and continues to growCerebrum two connected hemispheres of the brain embodies attributes such as speech and selfawareness as well as sensory perception motor abilities and memoryCerebral cortex covering layer of the cerebrum that contains the cells that control specific functions such as seeing hearing moving and thinkingNeurons and synapses o Neuron a cell in the bodys nervous system consisting of a cell body a long projection called an axon and several shorter projections called dendrites neurons send and receive neural impulses or messages throughout the brain and nervous system o Neuron proliferation rapid proliferation of neurons in the developing organisms brain multiply rapidly in embryonic stage o Glial cell nerve cells that support and protect neurons and serves to encase them ins heaths of myelin o Myelination process by which glial cells encase neurons on the sheaths of the fatty substance myelino Neural migration movement of neurons within the bran that ensures that all brain areas have a sufficient number of neural connections o First 2 years of lifeo Synapse specialized state of intercellular communication where information is exchanged between nerve cells usually by means of a chemical neurotransmitter o Synaptogenesis forming of synapses o Neuronal death programmed cell death the death of some neurons that surround newly formed synaptic connections among other neurons o Synaptic pruning brains disposal of the axon and dendrites of a neuron that is not often stimulated o The goal of neuronal death and synaptic pruning are to increase speed efficiency and complexity of transmissions between neurons and to allow room for new connections that develop as the child encounters new experiencesSequential development of the brain o When infant is 2 months old motor reflexes such as rooting and startle response drop out and motor cortex begins to oversee voluntary movement like reaching crawling and walkingHemispheric specialization o Hemispheres the 2 left and right halves of the brains cerebrum o Corpus callosum band of nerve fibres that connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain
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