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Konstantine Zakzanis

Second Midterm notes for PSYB32Chapter 6 Anxiety Disordersanxiety is characterized as an unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension disorders of anxiety are when subjectively experienced feelings of anxiety are clearly presentand are under 6 categoriesphobias panic disorder generalized anxiety disorderGAD obsessive compulsive disorderOCDposttraumatic stress disorderPSTD and acute stress disorderthere is a great deal of comorbidity among the anxiety disorder because a symptoms are not disorder specific b etiological factors applicable to more than one disorderhigh rate of childhood maltreatment has been linked to greater symptom severity and poorer quality of life most common psychological disorder with 1 in5 one year prevalence and life time prevalence is 106 and 166 respectivelyhas an early age of onsetand there is a clear gender differencemust interfere with their home school work and social life also independent risk factor for suicide attempts comorbidity is strongest with the depressive disordersspecific phobias have examined responsesacross three conditions negative emotion positive emotion and neutral conditionPHOBIAsDefinition a disrupting fear mediated avoidance that is out of proportion to the danger actually posed and is recognizedby the sufferer as groundless suffers from intense distress and social or occupational impairment because of the anxietySpecific phobiasunwarranted fears caused by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation DSM subdivides it intoblood injuries and injections situations animals and the natural environmentLifetime prevalence of 1 in 10age of onset is around 10 yrs Social phobias persistent irrational fears linked generally to the presence of other peoplefearing that they will reveal signs of anxiousness or behave in an embarrassing way can be either generalized or specific generalized SPinvolve many different interpersonal situation earlier age of onset more comorbiditydepression and alcohol abusemore severe impairmentthree factor National Comorbidity Survey 1 social interaction fears 2observation fears and 3 public speaking fears linked with self medicationonset during adolescence when social interaction and social awareness play a much more important role in life Etiology Behavioural Aviodance Conditioningassumes that it is a result of learned avoidance responseswhich is based on Mowrers two factor theory oclassical conditioningfear of neutral stimulscsif paried with an intrinsic painful or frightening eventUCS oa person can learn to reduce this conditioned fear by escaping from or avoiding the CSoperant conditioning reinforcing consequences of avoiding fearModelinglearning to fear something as a result of an unpleasant experience with it imitation of othersthis type of learning is otherwise called vicarious learning Prepared learning people ten to fear only certain objects events and situations the fact that certain stimuli to which an organism is physiologically prepared to be sensitive Diathesiswhy do some people who are exposed to trauma do not develop enduring fear provides the hypothesis that there is a cognitive predisposition in other words a tendency to believe that similar traumatic experiences will occur in the future Social Skills Defecitinappropriate behaviour or a lack of social skills as the cause of social anxietythe individuals has not learned how to behave Cognitive theories anxiety is related to being morelikelu to aattend to nehatibve stimuli to interpret ambigious information as threatenninf are more likelt than postie ones to occue in the dutuewthemes of disgust that occie without consciour introspection or awareness1 attentional bias to focus on negative social information perceived criticism and hostile reactions form others and interpeet ambigious situations as negative 2 perfectionistics standards fo r accepted social performancesand 3 a high degree of public self consicoucness Biological theoriesANSmaybe one differs from the ease by which their ANS become aroused laible or jumpy individualsare those whose autonomic systems are readily aroused by a wide range of stimuli a dimension known as automatic liability Genetics 64 of people withblood injection phobias have at least one first degree reltive with the same disorderwhere as prevelance in the general population is 341 genetic complexitydisorder likely reflect the additive effects of multiple loci 2 phenotypic complexity is aproblem because their complexity likely transcend DSM categories These issues make it difficult to assume a casual biological factor to phobias
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