Psychology Chapter 5 exam
Learning: An adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a
particular behavior is changed by an experience.
All changes are not attributed to learning; a behavior may change due to
preoccupation, fatigue etc.
Experiences alter the structure & chemistry of the brain resulting in changes to the
system in response to the change
Performance:The behavioral change produced by the internal changes
brought on by learning. Proof that learning occurred.
However it is a flawed truth as other factors can contribute to learning
(fearfulness, fatigue) so
scientists look for specific things when checking for learning.
Orienting response: Any response by which an organism directs
appropriate sensory organs towards the source of the novel stimuli.
Habituation: The simplest form of learning; learning not to respond to an
unimportant event that occurs repeatedly.
Short-term habituation: The habituation where it only lasts for a
short amount of time, where after a while it will not be remembered and
will have to be habituated again.
Long-term habituation: A form of habituation which occurs over a
longer time and
they will not have to go through habituation for a long
amount of time.
The difference of the two forms is the pattern in which an organism is habituated. When stimuli
are massed into quick repetitions, it usually leads to short term habituation.
When habituation is slowing but long term it usually leads to long-term
Classical conditioning is learning about the specific conditions that will
lead to an important
Classical conditioning: The process by which a response
normally elicited by one stimulus (USC) comes to be controlled by
another stimulus (CS) as well
Unconditional Stimulus: A stimulus that naturally causes a
reflexive response in classical
Unconditional Response: The actual response (UCR) of the stimulus (UCS)
Conditional Stimulus (CS): A stimulus, because of its
repeated association with the UCS, eventually elicits a
conditioned response. Conditioned Response (CR): The response of the
conditional stimulus (CS)
Classical conditioning allows for the learning of stimuli that predicts the
occurrence of an important event allowing the person to make the appropriate action soon
and more effectively.
It allows unimportant stimuli to be paired with important ones that
therefore for it to become symbolic of an important event.
Acquisition: In classical conditioning, the time during which a CR first
appears and increases in frequency.
Two factors that affect acquisition are:
Intensity of UCS
The times of the CS and UCS.
More intense UCSs usually cause more rapid learning and classical condition occurs best when
CS occurs a little before the UCS and both end at the same time (0.5s is the optimal timing)
Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery
Extinction: In classical conditioning, the diminishing of
the CR as the CS is repeatedly presented by is no longer followed
by the UCS. Only happens when the CS no longer signals the UCS because the person has to learn that the CS
no longer predicts the occurrence of the UCS. It also cant happen without the presence of both.
Spontaneous Recovery: The reappearance of the response
that had been extinguished after a period of time. It shows
extinction is not permanent.
Also if the CS and the UCS was presented together after the
extinction, the animal would learn
the association much faster than in the first place.
Stimulus Gernalization & Discrimination
Generalization: In classical conditioning, the elicitation of
the CR by a stimulus that resembles the CR used in training.
The closer the similar stimulus is to the original CR, the more
likely it will stimulate a CR and
Discrimination: In classical conditioning, the appearance
of a CR when one CS is
presented but not the other.
Discrimination can be produced if you use 2 different stimuli
during training. Using one and
always following it up by the UCS and never following it up by the