ch5__

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Summer

Description
CH 5: DECREASING A BEHAVIOR WITH EXTINCTION The principle of extinction states a) in a given situation individual emits a previously reinforced response & that response is not followed by a reinforcing consequence b) that person is less likely to do the same thing again when he/she next encounters a similar situation if a response has been increased in frequency through positive reinforcement, then completely ceasing to reinforce the response will cause it to decrease in frequency Over a # of trails behaviors that no longer “pay off” gradually decrease. Behavior can also decrease cuz of forgetting. In forgetting a behavior is weakened as a function of time following the last occurrence of the behavior. In extinction behavior is weakened as a result of begin emitted without being reinforced. Factors influencing the effectiveness of extinction 1. Controlling reinforces for the behavior that is to be decreased • Reinforcers presented by other ppl or by the physical env’t can undo your good efforts at applying extinction. 2. Extinction of a behavior combined with positive reinforcement for an alternative behavior • Extinction is most effective when combined with positive reinforcement for some alternative behavior • It’s important that the increase in the requirement be very gradual otherwise the undesirable behavior will not decrease very rapidly • It’s also important during the application of extinction to ensure that the reinforcers that you are withholding are the ones that were actually maintaining the underirable behavior. • Extinction is sometimes criticized on the grounds that it is cruel to deprive ppl of social attention during their time of need www.notesolution.com 3. The setting in which extinction is carried out • One reason for changing the setting in which extinction is carried out is to minimize the possibility that other ppl will reinforce the behavior you are trying to decrease. • Minimize the influence of alterative reinforces on the undersirable behavior to be extinguished • Maximize the chance of the behavior modifier persisting with the program 4. Instructions: make use of rules • It is not necessary that individual be able to talk about or understand extinction it will probably help speed up the decrease in behavior if the person is initially told something like this: “ each time you do X then Y(reinforcing item) will no longer occur 5. Extinction may be quicker after continuous reinforcement • The influence of the reinforcement schedule on extinction can easily be imagined if you consider a little problem that you may have encountered • When a behavior has always been reinforced & then is never reinforced behavior extinguishes fairly quickly • When intermittent reinforcement has maintained a behavior that behavior is likely to extinguish more slowly • Behavior that extinguishes slowly is said to be resistant to extinction • Extinction is often quicker after continuous reinforcement (in which each response was reinforced) than after intermittent reinforcement ( in which response were reinforced only occasionally). • If you try to extinguish a behavior that has been reinforced intermittently you must be prepared for extinction to take longer 6. Behavior being extinguished may get worse before it gets better • During extinction behavior may increase before it begins to decrease • Increase in responding during extinction is commonly referred to as extinction burst www.notesolution.com • The effect of this action would be to reinforce the behavior when it gets worse • Rule to follow: if u introduce extinction keep with it. Things usually get worse before they get better but hang in there doing do will pay off in the long run • Exception is situation where extinction burst may be harmful 7. Extinction may produce aggression that interferes with the program • Another difficulty of extinction is that the procedure may produce aggression • It’s important to minimize aggression not only cuz it’s undesirable but also cuz it could lead to
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