LEC 10.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Lec 10 Tech=technique or technology SD= discriminative stimulus R=responce  Chaining- ex taking a piece of gum and putting in mouth is preceded by many SDs and there is always a reinforcement at the end of each step.  Each behavior response is cue for next one. You don’t get the natural reinforcing till the end of procedure.  We can divide any task into multiple steps.  We can make steps easier at first and then move to difficult ones.  Sd+ is the last reinforcement. If every step is taught to perfection we will have errorless learning. If response are not linked by SD, then total task is not gonna take place.  Task analysis- any behavior can be broken down. Group of tech have been used for many cases especially with individual with cognitive difficulty. E.g. making a bed involve multiple steps, cleaning face etc.  We do this on paper. There is always trial and error. First time the steps might not be very accurate but eventually we get solid steps.  We can make the client watch somebody and monitor while making notations  we can ask them to go through emotions slowly so once you both have the mutual confidence you will have all the behavior broken down appropriately.  Also , consulting with an expert helps too.  Many task involve these steps…cleaning, making bed, athletic skills, swing a baseball, a lot of physical based jobs, especially for cognitive difficulties pple e.g. packaging goods coming out of assembly line. Teaching these particular skills is chaining. Forward chaining. - Teach SR link until it is established and then reinforce it. We insert another S2R2 and then give reinforcement. Going through steps 123456 till you get the target behavior. On each trail always reinforced in the end. It is being artificially reinforced in this way but that’s ok bcz eventually it will be naturally reinforced. Backward chaining - From last step to first step. - Reinforcement is applied every single time. - In this case S1R1 is presented after the S2R2 and then reinforcement is given. - Praise is easy re
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