Lec 18.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Lec 18 – Chapter 8 Children eating lead can be poisonous. During their visit in hospital, medical staff are constantly putting lead base toys inside their mouth. This can disable the kids quite a bit. We are taking about positive punishment. Positive punishment involves aversive stimulus. GED is an instrument that people use to stop the aversive behavior. Four types of procedures: Overcorrection-example: students when they damage the property, principal/teacher get the student to erase all the damage that they have done. Restitution-getting some person to do more positive behavior. Theft reversal – in restitution phase they are suppose to give back the item. In overcorrection, you have to give back the item and make an effort (power and effective). Guided compliance- teacher ask the person to do something. The individual is physically guided to do it. Ex jimmy clean up your toys and went to eat. He doesn’t do it after asked multiple times. You have to jimmy and physically move him to clean up the toys. When you are doing this, you are not only using physical prompt but using negative reinforcement as well (how? At some point the physical prompt becomes aversive and jimmy says “leave it! I can do it myself” -> neg reinforcement at work). Physical guidance is contigent on problem behavior. Particularly where aggression is involve, you have to often time use the procedure where you hold the arms of the person. Some ethical issues might be involved but best to use for aggressive or aversive behavior. Ethical consideration: - Makes sure the person is physically able to bear the positive punishment activity vise - You shud expect them to be resistant; if no resistance, there re not gonna respond they way you want them to. - Makes sure it’s not reinforcing in their perspective or on your own. If child gets no attention, they take the physical contact that is aversion - Carry out without any harm. It shud be sufficiently discomforting but not a physical injury( no bruising or laceration) - Used less or rarely used in BM because first ethical reason and second you can use other procedure. All sort of other approaches are just as effective as the punishment procedures. Example: - Lemon juice – when pt is amount to ruminate the food, lemon juice is poured in the mouth and suddenly the throwing up behavior goes down - Spray mist- it has been institutionalize where peple being aggressive however it is not used anymore because it just takes away the person from the positive environment and the ones around him - Noise can be not comforting – some static noise might not be great to listen to \ - Reprimands are used in everyday life. This all that is attacking your nervous sys. - Electrical sh
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