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Midterm

midterm notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Semester
Winter

Description
Behaviour Analysis Chapter One What is Behaviour Analysis1 What does Behaviour Mean Behaviour refers to anything a person does because of internal or external eventsExternal and Internal Behaviours External overtopen to view or observationo Two types VerbalMotoro Verbal Behaviour use of languageo Motor Behaviour movement of bodyo Overt behvmain focus of applied behv analysis bc can be observed and measured directly by ao person Internal Covert not viewable privateo Ex emotions physiological changes3 rateWhat is not behaviourTraitsbehv ex smart Broad characteristicsimpreciseo Dont tell us specifically what we would need to change to improve a persons behvo More precise we are in describing behv more successful in measuring and improving that behv Diagnosesdont always indicate specific behvs which need to be changedo Therapists make diagnoses on basis of behaviours common to individuals who have the condition Outcomes of behvs not behaviours o Ex getting higher grades is an outcome of a behaviour How Behaviour Develops Inborn behvsreflexeso Many reflexes have survival value Ex rooting reflex baby turns head to obj that lightly touches its cheeksucking reflex suck any small rounded obj All o behvs develop after birthdepends on two processes 1 Heredity2 Experience Heredityaffect behv dev in 2 wayso First charts course of persons maturation physical growthEx Muscle growth and nervous system Earliest yrs growth fastest in headupper trunk Maturation determines when motor actions become possibleo Second provides foundation for tendency towards developing behvs of certain types Inheritance influences behv probs including stuttering anxieties autism alcoholismExperience usually dominant factor o Dev of behv occurs through learning 2 How We Acquire and Change BehaviourLearning internal process Applies to wide range of behvsppl dont always display what they have learned Learningdurable change in behavioural potential as a result of experienceRespondent Conditioning aka classical conditioning Ivan Pavlovs studysalvation of dogs UR and CR are the same behaviour salvationo Called respondentbehaviour because they are elicited involuntarily by stimulio Respondent conditioning learning process in which a stimulus gains the ability to elicit a response through repeated association with a stimulus that already produces that response Unconditioned stimulusfoodunconditioned response salivao Salvation when food is tasted Conditioned stimulus chocaconditioned response salivao When food present when not present ex hearing the wordseeing pic and when being tastedOperant Conditioning aka Instrumental conditioning Operant conditioning learning process by which behaviour changes because of its consequenceso Behvs operates on the environment thereby producing consequencesConsequences in Operant conditioning Skinner distinguished bw behavioural consequences of 2 typeso 1 Reinforcemento 2 Punishment Reinforcement strengthens a behv increases occurrenceo Rewardspraise etco IF performance of a behv increases Reinforcement occurredconsequence was reinforcing Punishment decrease weakens behv If performance of a behv decreases punishment occurredconsequence served as a punisherAntecedents in Operant Conditioning Behv influences by consequences following behvby events and circumstances that precede ito These cues are called Antecedents bc they precede and set occasion for your action ABC Antecedents sets occasion for Behaviour which produces consequencesRelating Respondent classicalOperant Conditioning Operantrespondent conditioning happen together in real lifeo Ex sight of bottle breast CSSucking CRReinforcing event milkModeling Modeling learning a behv by watching someone else perform it Aggression can be learnt through modelling Albert Bandurahitting Bobo doll exp w 3 scenarios aggression modeled receives punishment reward or no consequenceso All children promised rewards if they would reproduce the aggressive behvo Children performed same number of acts despite consequences viewedo Seeing models punished merely suppresses the performance of that behv Learn respondent behvs fears through modelling as wellAre Cognitive Processes involvedCognition covert behvs such as thinking and reasoning not observable by others Cognitive processes influence learning and behv Thoughtsantecedents to behvo Ex promise to call a friendthen do so Some cases main behv individuals need to changecognitive3Defining Applied Behaviour AnalysisApplied Behv analysis focuses on using principles of learning particularly operant conditioning to understand and improve peoples socially significant behaviour Word applieddiscoveringpracticing methods to improve peoples livesWord analysisthe functional relations between behaviourstheir antecedentsconsequences Can choose 2 types of techniques to change behaviouro 1 Behaviouralo 2 Cognitive Behavioural analysts focus on behv methods based on operant respondent conditioningmodelling to alt over behvs
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