Chapter 21.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 21 Respondent conditioning Respondent conditioning in everyday life: 1) Conditioned emotional responses. 2)Physiological reactions. 3) Substance use and abuse. 4) Cancer treatment reactions. 5) Learning positive reactions Factors and phenomena in respondent conditioning: 1) CS-US timing and intensity. 2) Relevance of the CS to the US. 3) Overshadowing, blocking and latent inhibition. 4) Second order conditioning. 5) Discrimination, generalization and extinction. Preparing to change a respondent behavior: 1) Assessing respondent behaviors. 2) Functional assessment of respondent behaviors. Respondent conditioning in everyday life Conditioned emotional responses: CR is an emotion (e.g. fear or anger). Researchers distinguish between two categories of fear: 1) Phobia. 2) Anxiety. The book uses fear interchangeably for these two terms. Phobia: Intense and irrational fear of something specific Anxiety: Fear that has a vague or unspecified source. Role of direct and indirect experience in CERs Direct CERs: When individual experiences CS and US firsthand. Indirect CERs: When individual acquires a CER by observing other people in fearful situations (modeling) or by receiving fearful information about a situation Inborn processes and CERs Role of biological processes in people’s development of CERs: Genetic twin studies confirmed in identical twins that fear was a genetic factor. Physiological reactions Examples of respondent conditioning: 1. Asthma 2. Chronic low back pain 3. Immune system functioning Substance use and abuse Operant conditioning: Effects on substance use occur in two ways: 1. Positive reinforcement: Receiving pleasant mood states. E.g. high. 2. Negative reinforcement: Removes unpleasant symptoms. E.g. stress, anxiety, headache. Respondent condition: Effects on substance use occur in two ways: 1. Develops CS  Produces internal CRs (e.g. physiological reactions) 2. Tolerance  Adaptation to substance; requires larger doses for same effect. a. Deaths associated with overdose seem to occur when tolerance to high doses temporarily fails; perhaps due to change in environment Respondent techniques against substance abuse: 1. Emetic therapy; treats alcohol abuse by having individual take a drug (emetic) that induces nausea as a UR when alcohol is consumed. Alcohol becomes a CS and nausea becomes a CR. Cancer treatment reactions Taste aversion learning: Associating foods with becoming sick . Learned food aversion: A food becomes distasteful because person associates it as a CS with the US of becoming sick. This is a common side effect of chemotherapy. Anticipatory nausea: Drug is US, nausea is UR and CR. Absence of drug may lead to CR by thinking about the drug. Learning positive reactions Learning positive reactions: We can learn positive reactions just as easily as negative reactions to respondent conditioning of a neutral stimulus to a conditioned stimulus and conditioned response Factors and phenomena in respondent conditioning Development of respondent conditioning and strength of resulting respondent behavior: Affected by: CS-US timing and intensity: Neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus must occur close enough in time to allow the individual to connect the two. The intensity of the stimulus also results in a stronger association between NS and US. Relevance of the CS to the US: Some combinations of pairs develop CS-US associations faster than other either because of: 1) Prior learning or 2) Genetic factors Overshadowing, blocking and latent inhibition: In real life respondent conditioning, the US occurs in a context of many neutral stimuli, any of which could become a CS. E.g. if you were drowning, neutral stimuli could include: seeing water, feeling water, hearing splashes, smelling water, tasting water. Factors determining which NS  CS: 1. Overshadowing; the most prominent stimulus will become the strongest CS in eliciting the CR. 2. Blocking; an existing CS prevents other stimuli from becoming effective signals for the US 3. Latent inhibition; prior experience with a potential CS in neutral circumstances (i.e. without a US) makes later respondent conditioning involving that stimulus more difficult. E.g. having experience with nice dogs  fear in dogs less likely to develop. Second order conditioning First order conditioning: When conditioning occurs with a US Second order conditioning: When conditioning occurs with a strong CS (in the absence of US) and develops the ability to elicit a CR. Second order conditioning vs second order blocking: Second order blocking: An established CS is paired with a potential CS in the presence of the US. The potential CS does not develop the ability to elicit the CR. Why is it in the presence of US? Discrimination, generalization and extinction Discrimination: Discriminate between different antecedent stimuli and respond differently toward them. In respondent conditioning, the CS is the antecedent and people learn to discriminate between a particular CS and other potential antecedents. Generalization: Tend to respond to antecedents that are similar to the CS Extinction: Two meanings: 1) A procedure or condition in which a CS is presented repeatedly without the US it had been paired with during conditioning. 2) A process in which the likelihood of the CR decreases when the US no longer occurs with the CS. Preparing to change a respondent behavior Assessing respondent behaviors: Like in operant behaviors, we need to measure the behavio
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.