Study Guides (238,069)
Canada (114,906)
Psychology (1,813)
PSYB45H3 (113)

psyb45 exam notes -final.docx

41 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 5-Reinforcement: Positive and Negative -law of effect: satisfying consequences, such as rewards or escape from unpleasant circumstances, strengthen stimulus-response connections gradually in the process of learning DEFINING REINFORCEMENT -reinforce: strengthen, increase, or make more pronounced -reinforcement: the process in which a consequence of a behaviour strengthens that behaviour, making it more likely to occur in the future—consequence is contingent on the behaviouroccurs only when the behaviour occurs -reinforcer is the object or event that serves as the consequence in reinforcement—basically something someone ‗wants‘ or finds ‗pleasant‘ or ‗satisfying‘ NATURAL AND PROGRAMMED REINFORCEMENT -natural reinforcers-consequences of a behaviour that occur spontaneously as a normal part of every day events and are not planned and given systematically to affect a behaviour, even though they do—i.e., when pushing a switch illuminates the room (behaviour: pushing switch; consequence: illumination) OR telling a joke is reinforced by the enjoyment other people express  Another form of natural reinforcement is automatic reinforcement, in which a behaviour produces a reinforcer directly, without other ppl playing a role. i.e., scratching an itch and making a sound that is pleasing to oneself -programmed reinforcers- consequences provided within a program of reinforcement with the goal of increasing or strengthening specific behaviour—i.e., high grades for good work in school & wages for satisfactory work on a job POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT -positive reinforcement: the consequence involves presenting or adding a stimulus (called ‗positive reinforcers‘) after the individual has performed a response -negative reinforcement: when the negative pattern occurs, a stimulus is subtracted—for example, if a boy has a tantrum in a store b/c his mother refused to buy him candy, and she relents, the tantrum stops. In this example, both ppl‘s behaviour received reinforcement. The boy‘s tantrum behaviour resulted in positive reinforcement (candy) but the mother‘s behaviour of relenting received negative reinforcement, making her more likely to relent for future tantrums. In negative reinforcement, the consequence of the behaviour—in this case, relenting and buying candy—involves decreasing or removing an aversive stimulus, the tantrum (other examples include drinking alcohol to reduce unpleasant feelings or eating foods to reduce feelings of hunger or taking an aspirin to to decrease physical pain)—so basically you‘re adding something to either increase a behaviour (positive reinforcement) or to decrease or remove a behaviour (negative reinforcement) -positive and negative reinforcement each result in a relatively desirable state of affairs for the recipient— i.e., child got candy and mother got an end to the tantrum CONDITIONED AND UNCONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT -unconditioned reinforcers: also known as primary reinforcers are consequences that function as reinforcers even when the individual has had no learning history w/ them—i.e., food, water, warmth, and reduction of pain when individual is hungry, thirsty, cold, or in pain -conditioned reinforcers: also known as secondary reinforcers are stimuli that did not have the ability to strengthen behaviour until they became reinforcing as a result of learning—i.e., money can be served as a conditioned reinforcer & it probably developed its ability to strengthen behaviour for you by being associated w/ other stimuli that were already reinforcing, such as when you paid for clothes or food Concept Check 5.1 1) Increases 2.) present 3.) applying ointment to injured area to reduce pain 4.) adding and subtracting 5.) candy 6.) unconditioned reinforcer 7.) getting something desirable or satisfying TYPES OF POSITIVE REINFORCERS -to choose reinforcers for an intervention to change operant behaviour, one must be aware of the types of reinforcers available TANGIBLE AND CONSUMABLE REINFORCERS -tangible means material objects we can perceive -consumable means things we can eat or drink they both include conditioned and unconditioned responses—i.e., when children at mealtime Obey their parent‘s instructions to wash their hands before they may sit at the table and eat, food is the reinforcer for their behaviour ACTIVITY REINFORCERS -using high probability behaviours (i.e., drawing for little kids) as a reinforcer for a specific behaviour -Premack Principle: Premack proposed that one reason consequences are reinforcing is that they involve performing high-probability behaviours, and these activities will work as reinforcers only for less frequent behaviours—i.e., toothbrushing at a summer camp increased when the campers‘ opportunity to go swimming was contingent on brushing their teeth -potential activity reinforcers can be identified by monitoring ppl‘s naturally occurring activities & see which ones they choose most often when they have a free choice -it is unclear as to why using high-probability behaviours increase low probability behaviour, one hypothesis proposed the explanation called the response deprivation hypothesisaccording to this view, using a high-probability behaviour (for instance, playing a game) as a reward makes that activity contingent on performing an infrequent behaviour (doing chores), thereby restricting or depriving the person of his or her usual opportunities to perform the high-probability behaviour—person increase doing chores to overcome restricted opportunities to do the restricted behaviour, playing a game SOCIAL REINFORCERS -social reinforcers are consequences consisting of interpersonal acts that strengthen one‘s behaviour, as when our behaviour receives praise, attention, or a smile, nod, or affectionate touch acts given directly or indirectly (such as in a letter of appreciation) -3 advantages to using social reinforcers for improving ppl‘s behaviour: 1) can be administered easily and quickly in almost any setting 2) can be given immediately after the target behaviour, enhancing effectiveness 3) they occur ‗naturally‘ in ppl‘s everyday lives as a result may continue to reinforce target behaviour after the intervention ends FEEDBACK -feedback: information that assesses or guides people‘s performance -can either be positive, indicating our behaviour is correct or negative, indicating corrections are needed -occurs naturally in people‘s lives, doesn‘t interrupt ongoing behaviour, and can be administered easily, quickly, and immediately in almost any setting -combining feedback with reward usually works better -a special feedback technique called biofeedback helps ppl gain voluntary control over body processes by using equipment to give them continuous and specific information about the current functioning of a physiological process TOKENS -tokens are conditioned reinforcers that are like money because they can be accumulated and exchanged for goods or privileges, which are called backup reinforcers backup reinforcers are some form of tangible, consumable, social, or activity rewards -tokens have the advantages of: a) bridging the delay b/w performing the target behaviour and getting tangible, consumable, or activity reinforcers for it b) offering the possibility of a variety of backup reinforcers, thereby maintaining the tokens‘ value at a consistently high level -whilst designing a token reinforcement system, keep in mind that criteria for earning tokens should be neither too easy or too difficult & the number of tokens needed to buy back-up reinforcers should be reasonable FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REINFORCEMENT REWARD VALUE AND TIMING -the degree to which an ind. Values a specific consequence determines how likely it is to reinforce a behaviour—the greater its value, the greater its strengthening effect on a behaviour -what aspects of a reinforcer determine its value? reinforcers may vary in their quantity—for example amount of ice cream ind. receives—and quality or character (different flavours) -in positive reinforcement, the quantatity and quality of a reinforcer determine its value -reward value in negative reinforcement is determined by 2 factors: 1.) Quantity—that is, the amount by which the aversive situation is reduced. For instance, we are more likely to take aspirin to relieve a headache in the future if doing so in the past stopped most or all of the pain rather than just a little 2.) Intensity of the aversive condition—negative reinforcement is more effective when the behaviour reduces a very aversive stimulus than when it reduces a milder one -when changing someones existing behavior or teaching them a new behaviour, one can maximise the effect of reinforcement by delivering it immediately after each and every correct response MOTIVATION -cicumstances can increase or decrease a person‘s motivation and the reward values of a reinforcer -in interventions to change behaviour, one can sometimes manipulate circumstances that affect reinforcement -motivating operations (MOs) are procedures that temporarily alter: a) effectiveness of a consequence on behaviour b) performance of behaviour that normally lead to those consequences -i.e., what MOs can one use for food as a positive reinforcer? The two main ones are deprivation and satiation—in deprivation, one would restrict access t food or just wait enough time after the ind.‘s have eaten, which increases their hunger and the reward value of food NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IN ESPCAPE OR AVOIDANCE -substance use and abuse (such as drinking or smoking) develop partly b/c users rely on the substance to escape or avoid negative emotional states ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE -the aversive stimuli we try to reduce in negative reinforcement can be covert, as in anxiety or depression, or overt, as when noisy neighbours keep us from sleeping—we learn to perform behaviours that help us escape from the aversive stimuli ESCAPE CONDITIONING -escape conditioning involves learning to make a response that reduces or eliminates an aversive stimulus we are currently experiencing -a response that succeeds is strengthened thru the process of negative reinforcement—i.e., when you feel cold, you put on a sweater or coat—becoming warmer reinforces that behaviour -escape conditioning can lead to maladaptive behaviours—for example, children may learn that having a tantrum can help them escape from chores at home or a class they don‘t like in school -read the self-injuriour example on p.89 ―findings indicate that training procedures can be unpleasant to children with developmental disabilities and that stopping the training when self-injury occurs negatively reinforces the escape behaviours -how can we eliminate maladaptive escape behaviours? One way requires ending the negative reinforcement and adding positive reinforcement for good behaviour AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING -in avoidance conditioning, ppl learn to respond in ways that prevent them from experiencing aversive events -good such as in the case of learning to carry an umbrella when rain is likely -can be bad bc it can prevet ppl from acquiring useful skills, such as when they give an excuse if asked to do something they find threatening (i.e., giving a speech) -learning to avoid aversive events involves respondent and operant conditioning—outlined in two-factor theory CHAPTER 6: EXTINCTION -extinctions are mainly used in decreasing behavioural excesses WHAT IS OPERANT EXTINCTION? -extinction has two meanings: 1) it a procedure or condition in which a previously reinforced response no longer receives reinforcement 2) it is a process whereby the rate and force in performing the no-longer-reinforced response decreases -to start an extinction procedure for a target behaviour, we must identify what the reinforcement is and be able to control its source EXTINCTION FOR POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT -if consequence of a behaviour was positive reinforcement (i.e., tangible or social reinforcers), the extinction procedure involves making sure those rewards are no longer provided EXTINCTION FOR NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT -if the consequence maintaining the behaviour was negative reinforcement, the extinction procedure involves preventing the individual from escaping or avoiding the unpleasant situation THE PROCESS AND CHARACTERITISTICS OF EXTINCTION EXTINCTION BURST AND AGGRESSION -when reinforcement fails to occur, the response often increases temporarily in its frequency and magnitude -extinction bursts result from frustration (example of vending machine failing to work) -extinction often increases the target person‘s aggression and other emotional behaviours it can present problems in carrying out the extinction procedure, particularly if someone may be harmed hsyically -there are two ways to curb these behaviours: 1) instruct the person of the new contingencies in advance 2)combine extinction with other methods, such as reinforcement for other actions -when using extinction, behaviour analysts reinforce actions of 2 types (1) competing response is an action that is incompatible or interferes with performance of a target behaviour—i.e., children with autism can‘t engage in repetitive hand flapping if their hands are folded on their laps or in their pockets (2)alternative response: is dissimilar to and can take the place of the target behaviour as a desirable act, but the two actions aren‘t necessarily incompatible and could occur together—i.e., students raising their hands to ask a q as an alternative behaviour for just blurting it out. If the reinforcer for blurting out q‘s was receiving attention from the teacher, blurting out would be placed on extinction (w/holding attention) and raising hands would receive immediate attention GRADUAL DECLINE AND REAPPEARANCE OF THE BEHAVIOUR -behaviour tends to decline gradually or irregularly rather than immediately and smoothly -extinguished behaviour can reappear temporarily, even though reinforcement is not given for the behaviour -reappearance of an operant behaviour can occur in more than one way -in spontaneous recovery, the main factor seems to be the passage of time b/w periods of extinction two conditions can lead to spontaneous recovery: (1) placing another behaviour on extinction can cause a previously extinguished response to recur (2) it may happen b/w antecedents that were present when the behaviour had been reinforced in the past are present again -two processes that are like spontaneous recovery can also lead to reappearance of an extinguished operant behaviour: (1)renewal: the main factor is the context in which conditioning and extinction occur: if conditioning occurs w/ certain external and internal stimuli present, and extinction is carried out in a context w/o these stimuli, the behaviour may reappear if extinction sessions switch to a context that has stimuli that are either like those present in conditioning or are new—why? b/c the context is now unlike that used in extinction, it may not call up the ind‘s memory of the extinction process (2) reinstatement: the main factor leading to the reappearance of the extinguished behaviour is that, w/o performing the behaviour, the individual is exposed to the same stimuli that had originally reinforced the behaviour Concept Check 6.1: 1.) extinction 2.) reinforcers 3.) extinction burst 4.) competing response 5.)spontaneous recovery 6.)gradual WHAT FACTORS AFFECT EXTINCTION EFFECTIVENESS? -when conditions are less than ideal in an extinction program, the behaviour will show more resistance to extinction KNOWING AND CONTROLLING ALL RELEVANT REINFORCERS -to conduct extinction very effectively, we must know what all of the reinforcers are that maintain the behaviour and then stop them all -automatic reinforcement such as a sensory consequence that the behaviour produces directly is often more difficult to identify and control than other types of reinforcement PAST PATTERN OF REINFORCEMENT -continuous reinforcement: pattern in which individuals receive an external (non-automatic) reinforcer virtually every time they perform a particular behaviour -intermittent or partial reinforcement: not all our behaviours receive continuous reinforcement—some are reinforced some of the times theyre performed, but not other times -when a behaviour has almost always bee reinforced in the past—that is, it received continuous reinforcement—and then reinforcement is terminated, the behaviour extinguishes fairly quickly, showing little resistance to extinction -when a behaviour has been reinforced only some of the times it was performed in the past—that is, with an intermitten pattern—and then reinforcement is terminated, the behaviour persists longer, showing more resistance to extinction COMBINING EXTINCTION WITH REINFORCING OTHER ACTIONS -there‘s another benefit to reinforcing other actions while extinguishing a target behaviour: we can increase the effectiveness of the extinction procedure—i.e., if one wants to reduce a child‘s oppositional behaviour, they could withhold reinforcement for hostile or contrary acts and provide reinforcers for cooperating, which is likely to make extinction occur more quickly and be more durable INSTRUCTION IN THE NEW CONTINGENCIES -instruction in the new contingencies can affect how quickly extinction procedures will eliminate behaviour -if we have identified the reinforcers carefully and eliminated them, we shouldn’t conclude from just a burst or fluctuation that the extinction process isn’t working—behaviours sometimes get worse for a while before they get better CHAPTER 7: PUNISHMENT DEFINING PUNISHMENT -punishment is a process whereby a consequence of a behaviour suppresses that behaviour, decreasing its frequency, duration, and magnitude—the consequence that suppresses the behaviour in punishment is called a punisherthey are stimuli or conditions the person finds aversive (undesirable or unpleasant) -if were gng to define punishers as consequences ppl find unpleasant, we must be sure to assess the unpleasantness from the viewpoint of the person who will receive these consequences, not our point of view NATURAL AND PROGRAMMED PUNISHMENT -natural punishers are consequences that decrease a behaviour, happen spontaneously as a normal part of everyday life, and are not planned and given systematically to affect the behaviour –i.e., hitting your finger while hammering a nail would be a natural punisher -programmed punishers are consequences that are planned and used systematically w/ the goal of decreasing a behaviour—i.e., getting a speeding ticket and then driving slower in the future POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT -in positive punishment, an aversive stimulus or condition is added as a consequence of the behaviour. This is the kind of punishment used in the lemon juice therapy to stop Sandra‘s ruminating -in negative punishment, a stimulus or condition the person already has at the time of the behaviour occurs is subtracted as a consequence of performing the behaviour. This stimulus or condition typically is something ―pleasant‖ or valued—that is, receiving it for doing something would reinforce that behaviour UNCONDITIONED AND CONDITIONED PUNISHMENT -aversive stimuli called unconditioned punishers typically decrease behaviour on which they are contingent even though they were not learned to function that way—inborn, promoting survival of a speciesexamples: pain, strong tastes and odors, electric shock, very tense or harsh sounds -conditioned punishers are stimuli that did not have the ability to suppress behaviour until they developed this function as a result of learning this learning involves a stimulus-stimulus relationship that develops when the not-yet- punishing stimulus is paired repeatedly w/ an existing punisher—i.e., a child may learn his or her parents sternly saying ―No‖ as a punisher by the word being paired repeatedly w/ a slap to the child‘s hand TYPES OF PUNISHING EVENTS PHYSICALLY AVERSIVE STIMULI -physically aversive stimuli are events that cause physical pain, discomfort, or other unpleasant sensations these stimuli are mainly unconditioned punishers (i.e., hitting someone, loud noise) -can be naturally occurring events that happen in our environments as consequences of our behaviour— involve careless behaviour such as burning your hand by spilling hot coffee bc you moved too quickly— if these consequences decreased your careless behaviours, they are punishers REPRIMANDS -reprimands are disapproving statements or feedback that sharply criticize a behaviour b/c these statements are added after the behaviour, they provide positive punishment when they reduce operant behaviour AVERSIVE ACTIVITIES -aversive activities can be served as positive punishers -similar to Premack‘s Principl—that is, being required to engage in a low-probability behaviour as a consequence of performing a target response that occurs too frequently -a punishment approach called overcorrection requires the person to engage in aversive activities that correct or are the opposite of the undesirable target behaviour when that misbehaviour occurs—there are two methods: (1) restitution: refers to correcting the effects of misbehaviour and restoring the environment, usually to a condition better than it was before the undesired behaviour—graffiti example in which the ind. had to paint the entire wall (2) positive practice: refers to when the behaviour occurs, the person must repeatedly perform an appropriate or useful alternative behaviour or competing response to that of the misbehaviour—girl learning to constantly ask brother nicely for a toy example TIME-OUT -time-out: punishing a behaviour by converting or moving the person‘s environment from one that is relatively reinforcing to one that is less reinforcing -periods from 1 to 15 minutes are usually effective in suppressing a behaviour -three types or levels of time-out\ (1)isolation time-out: the target person is removed from the relatively reinforcing environment and placed in a separate, substantially less reinforcing environment—might be dangerous for individuals who might harm themselves or those that perform self-stimulation behaviours (2)exclusion time-out: target individuals are removed from opportunities for reinforcement w/o isolating them—i.e., by moving the persons to a separate part of the same environment and not allowing them to participate in any reinforcing activities (3)nonexclusion time-out: individuals who misbehave are not removed from the ongoing activities at all, but receive a signal indicating a period in which they cannot earn reinforcers that would have been available if the misbehaviour hadn‘t occurred -time-out can be extended to become extinction or negative reinforcement procedures RESPONSE COST -losing money as a result of misbehaviour is an example of a type of punishment called response cost, a negative punishment procedure in which a behaviour results in the person losing a valued item or privilege -response cost procedure carried out only when target behaviour is performed -taking away something ppl value as a consequence of their misbehaviour is not the same as w/holding reinforcement until they perform an appropriate behaviour –the former applies to decreasing a behavioural excess—that is, the person has performed an unwanted act-- and the latter applies to increasing a behavioural deficit—the person has not yet performed the desirable target behaviour ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES IN USING PUNISHMENT ADVANTAGES OF PUNISHMENT -achieves rapid results—desirable for dangerous and embarrassing target behaviour -produces positive side effects in non-target behaviours -often leads to a complete suppression of the unwanted response DISADVANTAGES OF PUNISHMENT -three broad categories highlighted for the disadvantages of using punishment Emotional and Escape/Avoidance Reactions -being punished sometimes produces negative emotional reactions, causing the person to cry or have tantrums—negative emotions interfere with therapy and learning processes -side effect is that the unpleasantness of the aversive stimuli may cause the target person to try to escape from the situation Aggressive Behaviour -individuals become physically aggressive toward the ppl who dispense punishment and other individuals in the environment -to the extent that target persons aggression leads to escape from the therapy or training session, that behaviour will be negative reinforced by virtue of the reduced discomfort from getting out of the session Future Use of Punishment -children often imitate the punishing acts they see, and the punishment can be physical or nonphysical -the recipient of punishment is not the only person in aversive situation who can learn to use punishment more in the future—the person dispensing it can, too Chapter 15-Using Basic Reinforcement Procedures to Increase a Behaviour IDENTIFYING AND STRENGTHENING POSITIVE REINFORCERS -generating hunches about what consequences will have high reward value can be a useful first step in identifying potential reinforcers >hunches developed through everyday observations, i.e., many of the things ppl like are related to broad demographic factors, such as age or gender  Tangible and consumable reinforcers: items that are material objects, such as toys or musical recordings, or that we can eat or drink  Activity reinforcers: opportunities to engage in activities we would choose to do when we have a free choice  Social reinforcer: interpersonal acts, such as a praise or a smile, by other ppl  Feedback: information that assesses or guides our performance of a behaviour  Tokens: conditioned reinforcers that can be exchanged for a backup reward, such as a tangible or activity reinforcer IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL REINFORCERS -programmed vs natural reinforcers -natural: happen as a normal part of everyday events; programmed: deliberately provided w/ the goal of increasing specific behaviours Interviews and Questionnaires -a straight forward way to identify potential reinforcers is to ask individuals what items or experiences they like or find pleasurable -questionnaires such as the Preferred Items and Experiences Questionnaire are administered -some limitations w/ the usage of indirect assessment method: >may be less accurate >ind.‘s with limited verable abilities maybe unable to answer the questions even when the items are read to them >extremely depressed ppl may feel that nothing gives them pleasure Direct Assessment Methods -by definition, it means observing or recording the ind.‘s reactions toward the stimuli when they occur or are available -carried out in two ways: (1) naturalistic observations: observing the person in his or her natural environments and recording the frequency and duration of each behaviour displayed—identifies high probability behaviours to serve as activity reinforcers (2)structured tests: presenting a previously selected set of stimuli and assessing which ones the person prefers—stimuli can be presented in two ways: a.) one at a time, while collecting data on how soon the person approaches or reaches for the stimuli or b.) two or more at a time, while collecting data on which ones the person chooses -reinforcerd identified thru structured tests are more effective in changing behaviours, esp. of children Enhancing Reinforcer Effectiveness -useful to strengthen effectiveness of potential reinforcers as an establishing operation -reinforcer sampling-presenting a small or brief sample of the consequence before the behaviour occurs to increase the likelihood that the person will make the response and get the reinforcer -modeling-individuals who see others receiving and enjoying pleasant consequences for their behaviour tend to increase the value they place on these consequences and copy the behaviour they saw the other ppl do -explaining or demonstrating the value of a reinforcer is an especially useful EO for token reinforcers, which have no value in their own right -public posting of performance data is an effective EO, esp if the reinforcer is feedback or praise -using varied reinforcers is an EO b/c the potency of a single reinforcer often declines w/ frequent use— due to satiation or the person habituates to a part. Reinforcer Concept check 15.1 1) Stickers 2) motivating operations 3)adolescents and young adults 4)naturalistic observations + structured test 5) reinforcer sampling HOW TO ADMINISTER POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT -once it is decided on which reinforcers are effective in changing behaviour, the next step is to figure out exactly how and when consequences will be provided REDUCE EXTRANEOUS COUNTERPRODUCTIVE REINFORCERS -three approaches can stop ppl from reinforcing someone‘s problem behaviour : (1) describe the situation to them and ask them to stop reinforcing the problem behaviour (2) reinforce them for not reinforcing the target person‘s behaviour (i.e., giving them candy for not reinforcing that specific behaviour) (3)have the other people share in the rewards the individual earns for improved behaviour (ie., having a party for the individuals achievement -what can we do when we cant control an existing reinforcement (i.e., oppositional or self-injurious behaviour)—provide a strong positive reinforcer for an alternative behaviour Recap: *positive reinforcement: the consequence involves presenting or adding a stimulus (positive reinforcer) after the individual has performed a response *negative reinforcement: when the negative pattern occurs, a stimulus is subtracted—for example, if a boy has a tantrum in a store b/c his mother refused to buy him candy, and she relents, the tantrum stops. In this example, both ppl‘s behaviour received reinforcement. The boy‘s tantrum behaviour resulted in positive reinforcement (candy) but the mother‘s behaviour of relenting received negative reinforcement, making her more likely to relent for future tantrums. In negative reinforcement, the consequence of the behaviour—in this case, relenting and buying candy—involves decreasing or removing an aversive stimulus, the tantrum (i.e., drinking alcohol to reduce unpleasant feelings or eating foods to reduce feelings of hunger) WHO WILL ADMINISTER REINFORCEMENT? -many behaviour change programs have used peer administered or self administered reinforcement when the individuals were able to do so physically and intellectually Peer-Administered Reinforcement -studies have shown that by abt 8 to 10 years of age, children who can perform the target behaviour can monitor other children‘s acts and provide reinforcement for correct responses -advantages are present in using peers as tutors & administrators of reinforcement: a) ind.requiring the intervention can receive more frequent and individualized help than is available with standard teaching procedures b) the peers who serve as tutors often gain from the experience themselves c) the social relationships among the tutors and tutees tend to improve as result of the intervention experiences -disadvantages: children are much more liberal than teachers in giving reinforcers Self-Administered Reinforcement -self-administered reinforcement is a cornerstone of self-management programs & often used as a supplemental method in behaviour therapy -disadvantage: ppl take unearned rewards—may be a result of the person simply using v/ lenient standards in assessing their behaviour  three approaches to reduce errors: 1) training by using modeling and instruction methods can teach the person to apply more rigorous or accurate standards in assessing personal behaviour 2) having the person make his or her target behaviour and goals public appears to increase accuracy in self-reinforcement 3) using an accuracy-checking procedure in a behaviour change program increases the person‘s accuracy, esp. if there are consequences for inaccuracies USE EASY CRITERIA INITIALLY -when trying to increase or decrease a behaviour, it‘s tempting to identify the final level of a behaviour you want and expect to perform at that level from the beginning of the intervention, using that level as the criterion for each instance of reinforcement -sometimes if you are unsure the person can perform at that level, it is a mistake to use that criterion: doing so may preclude the person‘s experiencing the reinforcer and its connection to the target behaviour -a better approach is to treat most behaviours we want to increase as if they need some shaping, the process of identifying an easily achieved starting response, which gets reinforced, and gradually raising the criterion for reinforcement IMMEDIATELY REINFORCE EACH INSTANCE OF THE TARGET BEHAVIOUR -whether we are helping someone change an existing behaviour or learn a new one, we can maximize the effect of reinforcement by delivering it immediately after each and every correct response -the longer the delay in giving the reinforcement, the less effective it will be in strengthening the behaviour -sometimes the reinforcers used cannot be given immediately, when this happens, one should find ways to bridge the delay in time b/w the behaviour and the reinforcer, especially by using additional reinforcers -case study: to reduce multiply controlled problem behaviours, it is important to eliminate all of the reinforcers for a problem behaviour ad use other methods that address antecedents and encourage alternative behaviours GRADUALLY THIN AND DELAY REINFORCEMENT -during an intervention to change or teach behaviours, we monitor the person‘s responses and provide immediate reinforcement -one can also try to schedule the reinforcement so that it occurs for each and every correct response—a pattern called a continuous reinforcement (CRF)—one can actually help ppl maintain the target behaviour by phasing out the programmed reinforcement after the behavioural goal has been achieved and the target behaviour is well established. This is done by gradually changing the schedule of reinforcement—that is, the rule that determines which instances of a response, if any, will be reinforced Thinning the Reinforcement Schedule -at the end of behaviour change programs, we try to copy everyday life by employing a procedure called thinning whereby we gradually reduce the rate at which the behaviour receieves programmed reinforcement these reductions make reinforcement schedules progressively thinner reinforcing only some instances of a behaviour is called intermittent reinforcement or partial reinforcement -a major benefit of thinning the reinforcement schedule at the end of an intervention is that the target behaviour becomes even stronger—that is, it occurs at a higher rate than it did under continuous reinforcement and persists longer when programmed reinforcement is no longer provided Delaying Reinforcement -another way to phase out a person‘s reliance on programmed reinforcers and maintain a target behaviour after the intervention ends is to increase the delay bw the occurrence of the response and its reinforcer -delaying begins after the behaviour is well established and proceeds in gradual steps SWTICH TO NATURAL REINFORCERS -after we have improved a target behaviour in an intervention that included programmed reinforcers, we will want the person‘s natural environment to take over the reinforcement function USING NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT WHEN NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS USED Read example on pg 224 HOW TO ADMINISTER NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT -several factors can affect how effective negative reinforcement will be in changing behaviour: (1)the reward value of the negative reinforcement, which appears to be determined by how much the escape or avoidance behaviour reduces the aversive stimulus—the greater the degree to which the behaviour removes the aversive event, the more effective the negative reinforcement (read example from above) (2)how strong the aversive stimulus is: negative reinforcement is more effective when the behaviour reduces a very aversive stimulus than when it reduces a milder one CHAPTER 16: USING ADVANCED REINFORCEMENT PROCEDURES TO INCREASE A BEHAVIOUR TOKEN REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS -in token reinforcement systems, token rewards and back up reinforcers are selected and applied w/ detailed rules and procedures to change a target behaviour TOKENS AS CONDITIONED REINFORCERS -tokens function like money thus they serve as points or credits toward the exchange cost for backup reinforcers -they are conditioned reinforcers b/c they were not originally reinforcing for the person and came to function thru learning PROS AND CONS OF USING TOKE REINFORCERS -tokens can last and accumulated, enabling us to exchange them for better backup reinforcers -advantages include: they can be given immediately after a desirable behaviour to bridge the delay b/w performing the behaviour and getting the tangible, consumable, or activity reinforcer that has been earned token reinforcers don‘t disrupt ongoing activities as much as several other types of reinforcers do token reinforcers can be applied more easily than other rewards w groups of individuals b/c token reinforcers can be exchanged for a variety of attractive backup reinforcers, their reward value is likely to remain high and not highly dependent on a specific establishing operation that currently exists it is possible to build into the system the type of punishment called response cost, in which the person loses something of value (tokens earned but not yet spent) after performing an inappropriate behaviour SETTING UP AND ADMINISTERING TOKEN SYSTEMS -to begin, one needs to design various features of the program, first starting w/ deciding the nature of the tokens and the backup reinforcers Choosing the Tokens and Backup Consequences -tokens can take many forms (stickers, poker chips etc.,) -direct assessment methods are used to identify potentially strong backup reinforcers (naturalistic observation or structured tests) or thru indirect assessment methods (interviews or questionnaires such as the Preferred Items and Experiences Questionnaire) -the larger the variety of reinforcers available, the greater the chance the tokens will maintain effectiveness & provide strong reinforcement -response cost can be administered as a punishment in token systems—person pays fines for instances of a behavioural excess (behavioural deficits are best handled by w/holding reinforcement until the behaviour occurs) Deciding How to Manage the Consequences -after deciding which reinforcers to use in the system, now you must devise a system for managing the distribution of the consequences, here are some guidelines:  specify clearly to everyone involved the behavioural criteria for earning tokens and the exchange rates for backup reinforcers. Post the criteria and rates prominently, if possible  be sure to award tokens as soon as possible after the desired behaviour occurs  use natural reinforcers, such as praise, in conjunction w dispensing tokens  keep careful and accurate records of the target behaviours performed and the reinforcers dispensed  provide bonus awards for high-level performance, if possible -who will administer consequences? Staff members of the organization or institution usually have the responsibility (responsibility: delivering and keeping track of the tokens each target person earned or lost and the backup reinforcers or punishers received) -how many tokens will a behaviour earn? Behaviours or chores that are less attractive require more tokens to enhance value of the reinforcer. Target ind.‘s w/ lesser abilities to learn or perform needed behaviours given more tokens/behaviour or more opportunities to exchange them for back up reinforcers -what will the exchange rates be? 1) if the number of tokens earned per behaviour is small, the cost of the backup reinforcer should be low (& vice versa) 2)the number of tokens needed to get a particular reinforcer should be related to the monetary cost of that item 3)law of supply and demand (low supply, high demand=higher costs) 4)charging a relatively small number of tokens for these reinforcers have more therapeutic relevance than others -how often will backup reinforcers be available? At the start: exchanging should occur frequently enough to establish the power of the token system. Secondly, the intellectual ability of the target individual should be considered. Initially, tokens should be able to be exchanged 1-2 times daily but should be reduced gradually toward the goal of allowing the children to redeem their tokens infrequently, in some cases only once a week Phasing Out the Token Programs 1)switch to natural reinforcers 2)delay opportunities to redeem tokens 3)decrease the number of tokens a target behaviour earns or increase the number of token required to buy backup reinforcers LOTTERY AND GROUP CONTINGENCY SYSTEMS -individual contingencies: reinforcers received were contingent on learner‘s own behaviour and not dependent on other individuals LOTTERIES -in a lottery, all eligible individuals are entered in a drawing to determine one or more prizewinners on the basis of chance—in behaviour change programs, eligibility is based on behaviour -lottery can apply to individual or a group of ppl -useful to thin reinforcement schedules or when constraints (such as costs) make it difficult to provide attractive rewards to all eligible ppl -potential problem: likelihood of winning a reinforcer may be set too low, causing performance to suffer GROUP CONTINGENCIES -in a group contingency, whether members of a group receive consequences depends on the performance of all or some of the members -points can be redeemed for gift cards and other items -three different structures:  independent: which provides reinforcement only to the members who meet a behavioural criterion  dependent: in which rewards given to the entire group depend on performance of one or some members  interdependent: which requires that the group as a whole or each and every member meet a criterion before rewards are given to all of them -in addition, group contingencies can also be used by dividing the ind.‘s into teams that compete with one another for reinforcers Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Contingencies -for programs that apply to more than a few ppl—easier to monitor and keep records on dispense reinforcers for a group as a whole than to carry out these tasks for each person in the group -they have built-in incentives to prevent members from reinforcing one anothers inappropriate responses -can promote desirable side effects in the social behaviours of the group (i.e., cooperation) -2 disadvantages:  contingencies that use the overall group‘s performance to determine consequences need to guard against a few individuals accounting for almost all of the group‘s score and some individuals receiving rewards while performing v poorly  can have negative side effects such as negative peer-pressure tactics (i.e., scolding or threats) likely to occur if program consequences include group punishment if behavioural criteria are not met Setting Up and Administering a Group Contingency -clearly identify and define target behaviours & determine & apply strong reinforcers -must decide whether the group members receive the same reward or individual ones -set reasonable and achieveable performance criteria making sure they can be reinforced -then select most appropriate type of group contingency (ind, dependent, interdependent) USING INTERMITTENT POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT -thinning of program done gradually as opposed immediately in order to prevent deterioration of the behaviour -the most common approach for thinning a schedule of programmed reinforcement is to reduce the percentage or ratio of correct responses that receive rewards i.e., in a program to teach a child to name various items in a set of objects, researchers thinned the reinforcement schedule, starting by skipping reinforcement for about one correct response out of four. As time went by, more and more trials went unreinforced until eventually the child had to label the whole set before the reinforcer was delivered -other strategies used for thinning reinforcement schedules: (1) decreasing days when rewards are available: an intervention trained children to identify and request nutritious snacks to receive reinforcers of various types on a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule. In the process of thinning, the children continued to get reinforcement on a CRF schedule on days when rewards were made available; but the percentage of days when rewards were available was reduced from 100% to 67% to 33% (2) decreasing frequency of assessment: an intervention conducted to discourage a boy from stealing the belongings of other students in his classroom. Initially, token reinforcers and punishers were administered by assessing his stealing every 15 minutes, but this schedule was thinned by increasing the interval between assessment to once every 2 hours INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES -the rule governing which instances of the behaviour are reinforced is called an intermittent reinforcement schedule or partial reinforcement schedule Ratio Schedule -in a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement, the criterion for the individual‘s receiving each instance of reinforcement is performance of a constant number of correct responses—i.e., garment workers might have to sew five pullover shirts to earn one dollar—the ratio of the number of responses for each reinforcer is 5:1, which is abbreviated as FR 5 reinforcer is given immediately after the individual makes the last response in the fixed criterion -in a variable ratio schedule, the rule governing when reinforcement will be given requires an unspecified and changing number of correct responses for each instance of the reward reinforcer given immediately after the individual makes last response in varying criterion VR schedule keeps person guessing about whether or when a payoff will happen b/c instances of reinforcement are unpredictable but responding rapidly increases frequency of reward (slot machines is an example)—better example: telemarketing work illustrates behaviour being reinforced on a VR schedule: telephoning ppl to sell products or services earns a commission for each sale but the number of calls person has to make before selling something varies—which call will lead to a sale is unpredictable Interval Schedules -in interval schedules, the rule for administering each instance of reinforcement is based on the elapsed time since the last reinforcer was dispensed—reinforcer given for the first correct response following some period of time since the last reinforcement occurred in other words reinforcement is not available for a period of time after each reward is given amount of time reinforcer unavailable can be fixed or variable -a fixed interval schedule (FI) makes reinforcement unavailable for a constant amount of time after each instance of reinforcement the first correct response individual makes after that time has elapsed is reinforced immediately & then next the interval begins –i.e., if you‘re watching a show you enjoy and don‘t enjoy the commercials, reinforcement for looking at the TV is not available during the time commercials are aired. b/c commercial interruptions tend to have a somewhat standard duration, you can leave the room or engage in some other activity for about that amount of time and start looking at the TV again toward the end of the interval -in a variable-interval (VI) schedule, the rule governing when the reinforcer will not be available involves an unspecified and changing amount of elapsed time after each instance of the reward i.e., for a series of 6 instances of reinforcement, the reward might be unavailable for the following amount of times: 4,12,23,8,11,2 minutes unpredictable and keeps person guessing whether or when a payoff will happen EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT -all intermittent reinforcement schedules produce higher rates of responding than CRF schedules do while they are in force Effects of Ratio Schedules During an Intervention -post-reinforcement pauses tend to be longer when many responses are required for each reward than when few responses are required -ratio strain: when then number of responses may become too large and the behaviour begins to deteriorate CHAPTER 17: USING EXTINTION, DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT, AND HABIT REVERSAL TO DECREASE A BEHAVIOUR -key point: when reinforcers that maintain a behavioural excess are consistently withheld, the behaviour should begin to subside and eventually stop IDENTIFYING AND CONTROLLING REINFORCEMENT IN EXTINCTION -extinction is defined as a procedure or condition in which reinforcement is ended for a behaviour, and has certain characteristics: (1) extinction burst and aggression: when the target behaviour occurs and no longer results in reinforcement, its frequency and magnitude may increase temporarily and the person may make aggressive acts (2) gradual decline and reappearance: the target behaviour‘s decline usually occurs gradually or irregularly and an extinguished behaviour can reappear after a while (3)resistance to extinction: is stronger when the target behaviour was reinforced in the past on an intermittent schedule than on a continuous reinforcement schedule -extinction for behaviour maintained by positive reinforcement involves terminating rewards & extinction for behaviour maintained by negative reinforcement involves preventing escape or avoidance that the response previously produced from an aversive situation IDENTIFYING A BEHAVIOUR’S REINFORCERS -the best way to identify a behaviours reinforcement is to conduct a functional assessment (ABC), for 5 reasons: (1)implementing extinction based just on assumption about a behaviour‘s reinforcers as opposed to conducting a careful FA is very unlikely to succeed (2)reinforcers for a specific behaviour can differ from one person to the next (i.e., self -injurious behaviour) (3)the consequences that influence a problem behaviour can be different in different contexts (i.e., during training sessions vs. during leisure activities) (4)sometimes a problem behaviour is maintained by multiple reinforcers (5)identifying reinforcers with FA procedures makes extinction methods more effective in reducing target behaviours ELIMINATING A BEHAVIOUR’S REINFORCERS -once reinforcers are determined, one must assess whether they have control over their occurences, if not, then extinction cannot be administered Can You Control the Reinforcement? -two circumstances can become difficult for controlling reinforcers a functional assessment (FA) has identified: (1) the consequence for the target behaviour is automatic reinforcement be creative: a reinforcer for a child was the sound a plate made when he would spin it on a table, the behaviour analysts covered the table with carpeting (2) people other than the individual who is trying to modify the behaviour provide the reinforcers can be prevented by explaining to the individuals what they are doing and how it promotes undesirable behaviour OR reward them for not providing reinforcers for target person‘s problem behaviour Enhancing the Effectiveness of Extinction -withhold all of the target behaviour’s reinforcers consistently—important in extinction bc occasionally failing to withhold the reinforcers means that reinforcement is occurring intermittently (intermittent increases resistance to extinction) -reinforcer appropriate acts that are alternative behaviours or competing responses for the problem behaviour -provide instructions regarding the new contingencies: the problem behaviour will not result in reinforcers as it had in the past & if reinforcing alternative behaviours or competing responses, one should explain what those acts are and what their consequences will be -link extinction to a variety of conditions in which the target behaviour can occur  by doing this, it can promote generalization of the improved behavior to many different circumstances (that is, the problem behaviour will stop virtually everywhere it could occur) and maintain the change over time PROBLEMS IN APPLYING EXTINCTION -in cases such as aggression or self-injury, using extinction by itself creates danger, raises ethical concerns, and is generally not recommended Dealing With the Characteristics of Extinction -the characteristics of extinction include extinction: burst, elicited aggressive behaviour & reappearance of target behaviour -temporary reappearance of an extinguished behaviour can occur—it is important to know about possibility of reappearance bc its occurrence can mislead ppl into thinking that the process of extinction didn‘t succeed which can result in them to stop withholding reinforcement -most essential element in dealing w these characteristics of the extinction process is to be aware that they can occur so that you can plan for their occurrence & interpret them correctly  when a target behaviour shows a burst or reappearance, make sure to maintain extinction procedure, resulting to a decrease in the behaviour DECREASING A BEHAVIOUR WITH DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT -differential reinforcement can mean two things: (1) reinforcing a response in one situation but not in another (2) reinforcing one type or category of response but not another -when differential reinforcement is implemented to decrease a target behaviour, the procedure involves reinforcing one response category (an alternative behaviour or competing response) while w/holding reinforcement (Mainly by using extinction) for another response category (the problem behaviour) DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF INCOMPATIBLE OR ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOUR -in the procedure, differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviour (DRI), one w/hold reinforcers for the target behaviour and systematically provide reinforcers for performing a competing response  competing response can be any incompatible behaviour (any action impossible to make simultaneously w/ the target behaviour -example: DRI procedure was used to reduce 3 to 6 year old children‘s disruptive behaviour (ie crying or body movements) during dental visits. The children received explanations of the intervention contingencies: w/holding reinforcement (extinction) of disruptive behaviour and positive and negatve reinforcers for staying still and quiet (which are competing responses for disruption). Staying still and quiet for certain amount of time resulted in praise, stickers and prizes and short stoppages of the procedures (negative reinforcement) -in differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour (DRA), one w/holds a target behaviours reinforcer and rewards a dissimilar desirable behaviour that is not necessarily a competing response  example: approach was used w. three girls in a preschool to increase their production of diverse forms such as ramps or arches, in block building. When the girls produced a novel form, their teacher showed approval and enthusiasm but when they made a form they had made before, the teacher showed little interest (extinction) -one form of DRA procedure is known as functional communication training which has three components:  extinction: w/holding reinforcement for the problem behaviour  prompting or shaping an alternative behaviour: one or more mands (requests) such as saying, ―I don‘t understand‖ or ―Am I doing good work?‖  reinforcing the mands: providing attention when the children communicated their needs verbally w the mands, for example DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF OTHER BEHAVIOUR -differential reinforcement of other behaviour (DRO) involves withholding reinforcement when the problem behaviour occurs (extinction) and giving reinforcement when the behaviour does not occur at all during a certain time period (i.e., a minute, hour, or a whole day) -also called differential reinforcement of zero responding, because reinforcement is given if the target behaviour is absent -DRO reinforcement can be structured in either two ways: (1) in an interval DRO, reinforcement is given if the behaviour was absent throughout the entire time period (2) in a momentary DRO, reinforcement is given if the behaviour was absent at a specific moment after a time period has elapsed  time periods in either structure can be fixed or constant across many instances of reinforcement OR variable, changing from one instance to the next  most DRO applications use a Fixed Interval DRO (FI DRO -four tasks must be completed before carrying out a DRO method: (1) perform a functional assessment to identify the past reinforcers for the target behaviour so it can be eliminated in the extinction component of the procedure (2) choose one or more reinforcers to provide when the behaviour is absent for the designated time (3) choose the initial time interval for the interval or momentary DRO criterion for reinforcement (which can be lengthened later) (4) explain to the person as clearly as possible the new contingency -most complicated part of DRO procedure is keeping track of time intervals, for example the process for resetting the stopwatch happens for a DRO procedure under two conditions:  when the person performs the behaviour before the interval ends  when a reinforcer is delivered bc the person successfully completed an interval w/o making the target behaviour -DRO can successfully various operant behaviours such as sibling conflict at home, classroom misconduct, thumb sucking, and tantrums DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF LOW RATES OF BEHAVIOUR -use reinforcers to decrease a target behaviour by giving rewards contingent on the behaviour occurring below a certain frequency per unit of time -basically, a reinforcer is given only
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.