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Amanda Uliaszek

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1 BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION FINAL EXAM NOTES *consequence= reinforcer/punishment CHAPTER: 15/16 INCREASING BEHAVIORS Establishing Operation: Increases effectiveness of reinforcer Programmed Reinforcers: -identify them through Preferred Items and Experiences Questionnaire (better to use direct assessment b/c of language, ppl w depression, less accurate) Direct (naturalistic observation for high probability behaviors or structured tests [present stimuli & see which one p prefers]) Enhancing Effectiveness: 1. Reinforcer sampling: sample of consequence before behavior occurs (ex show Jamy she will get chocolate if she studies) 2. Modelling 3. Explaining the value.. good for token reinforcers 4. Public posting: performance data, good if reinforcer is feedback/praise 5. Varied reinforcers: use diff ones b/c single reinforce can decline due to satiation OR habituation *choice in reinforcer good b/c choice can be reinforcer OR serve as Establishing Operation for programmed reinforcer Administer Positive Reinforcement: -reduce extraneous counterproductive reinforcers (ask ppl to stop reinforcing the problem behavior, reinforce them for not reinforcing)…therapist can control these w problem behaviors (ex self injurious to escape) -treat behaviors as shaping (start easy then reinforce as it gets complex) behavioral deficit: lvl of starting response higher than avg baseline freq but lower than highest freq behavioral excess: lvl starting lower than avg, but higher than lowest 1. Tokens (form of respondent conditioning) -more variety of reinforcer available more token effectiveness -challenged ppl will need more tokens/backup reinforcers per day than usual pro: don’t need many rewards con: your reinforcement is delayed 2. Continuous reinforcement: Ex every time you answer a question, you will get a chocolate pro: behavior changes really quickly, really fast 3. Lottery: you have the chance to get the reward (whether u behav 5 or 10 times correctly; not everyone gets one its just by chance) con: not fair for everyone … bias 4. Group Contingencies: Give reward only if everyone participates in behavior/teams  good for simple behaviors ex a yes or no ex everyone who attends class will get a reward, there are also models 2 con: one person may not wanna participate & can cause negative peer-pressure tactics (ex threats [occurs most when there’s punishment]) -independent: reinforcement only to members who meet behavior criterion -dependent: rewards given entire group depend on one/some members -interdependent: group as a whole must do it for reward for all 5. Interval: some rule ex have to do this behavior 4 times before it gets reinforced, not reinforcing every instance of the behavior con: the interval that we choose isnt reinforcing enough pro: this is more effective than continuous *however even seconds can reduce its effectiveness in the beginning, so bridge the delay (use addictional reinforcers) when u cant immediately reinforce Intermittent/partial reinforcement: only some instances of behavior is reinforced *popular for thinning out  Ratio: when u decide how many correct responses are needed until u give reward (most common for thinning); in continious the number is 1 but in ratio its MORE THAN 1. 1. fixed ratio: every 2, every 3, …buy 5 subs get one free 2.. Variable ratio: every 2 response gets a lottery, then 4 days later its every 4 response u get a lot, … the target person therefore does not know how many she needs to respond to get it Interval: how much time has passed (doesn’t matter how many times behavior is done, it’s the time that has elapsed) 3. Fixed interval: every 2 hours.. or at end of month Ex try and sale most stuff at end of the month b/c you meet your quota at end of month 4. Variable interval: every 2 hours then 2 days later every 3 hours Ratio reinforcement is more effective than interval b/c its directly related to the target behavior Variable more effective b/c there is less post-reinforcement pauses (they stop b/c they know its not coming right away/have to do a lot of responses)…b/c you don’t know when reinforcement is coming Most effective out of the 4: ratio variable b/c most resistant to extinction smooth sharp increase in line… post reinforcement looks like when u have a fixed schedule /time (waves going up…pauses then up then pause then up/scallups) Ratio strain: ratio of responses become so large that behavior isn’t reinforced enough to be maintained Duration Schedules: person do behavior for certain length of time before reinforce ex hourly wage job Limited hold: person must respond within certain time after reinforcement becomes available or lose the chance -8-10 yrs old kid who can do the target behavior can reinforce other kids Ceasing Reinforcement (changing schedule of reinforcement) 3 1. Thin out : change rate ex replace mr solid with a smaller version, then smaller, then eventually don’t bring it 2. Replace w natural reinforcers Negative Reinforcement Food refusal: person rejects eating almost all foods Effectiveness: -reward value (the greater the behavior removes aversive event, more effective negative reinforcement is), strength of aversive stimulus (higher strength of aversive more effective reinforcement), & delay of reinforcement (more quick behavior removes aversive the more effective) CHAPTER: 17/18/19 DECREASING BEHAVIORS Decreasing Undesirable Behavior: Non Punishment Methods 1. Extinction: remove reinforcer (diff from punishment bc u remove reinforce) *need to know: functional assessment b4 applying itSome reinforcers to others may not be same with other ppl/ automatic reinforcers are hardest to diminish -withhold all reinforcers, be consistent and apply immeditately, variety of settings, instruct to them what your plan is for them, reinforce competing responses …MUST control them or can’t use extinction Characteristics: Extinction burst & aggression..*continue extinction procedure still Gradual decline and reappearance Resistance to extinction *happens when reinforced thru intermittent than cont. Before 1980 ppl just ignored bad behavior 2. Differential Reinforcement: Withholding reinforcement (aka extinction) from the target behavior and reinforcing a different behavior Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior: withhold reinforce & reinforce a competing response aka impossible to do w target behavior (w OCD ex counts equalizing reinforce like sitting on hands) Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior: same but reinforce w dissimilar desirable behavior functional communication training: extinct, shape alt beh, reinforce mands *when extinction not possible DRA still good if reinforcer for alt behavior has more value than the reinforcer for problem behavior Differential reinforcement of other/zero: must withhold and reinforce when not doing behavior interval (reinforce if behave was absent thru entire time period), momentary (if behave absent at specific moment after time period) *most use fixed-interval Differential reinforcement of low rates: give reinforce when behave is reduced full session (rein give end of session if behave occurred at level below criterion), interval (reward end of interval when behave is at level below), spaced-responding (reinf when behave occurs after that time) 4 3. Habit Reversal: Last way to do something before without using punishment; self- management purposes -become aware of triggers, decide on competing response, enlist social support Decreasing an Undesirable Behavior Punishment *last resort: Pros: Rapid results, Effective in the short term Cons: Aggression, Escape/avoidance, Does not teach appropriate alternative behavior *Should try to combine with reinforcement of positive behaviors, Give instructions and reasoning, Deliver immediately, vary punishers NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT (take something away to decrease behavior) 1. Time-out Isolation: no opportunity for reinforcement, by themselves Exclusion: cut off from opportunities without isolation Nonexclusion: not removed from activities, receives signal period where they cant earn reinforcers that would have been available if misbehav didn’t occur *should be brief (less than 15 min/1-5 Is effective), must be flexible (if p misbehaves end of time out period then extend the time) 2. Response Cost (lose item/priv that prob was a reinforce for earlier behave) -better than DRO POSITIVE PUNISHMENT (add aversive stimuli to decrease behavior) 1. Reprimands (harsh verbal criticism) 2. Physically aversive stimuli (ex shockhigher the MA higher the shock) -Self Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (mild shock when head bang) 3. Aversive activities Contingent exercise: movements unrelated to problem behavior Physical restraint; good for high prob behaviors ex head banging Response blocking: prevent completion of response (could be extinction) Overcorrection: effortful low probability behaviors restitution: correct effects of problem & restore environment ex muddy kid has to wash his clothes positive practice: perform over and over again appropriate responses Ethics Severe Handicap Assoc. don’t agree w physically aversive stimuli; professionals disagree Chapter: 10/11/12 NEW BEHAVIORS 1. Shaping: performance of behave improves Using successive approximations (steps) & No longer reinforce previous steps 1. Describe behavioral goal 2. Identify starting response 5 3. Develop a tentative and flexible plan for steps (flex to speed/slow particular to qual.) *steps start as primitive, gaps btw steps large enough to produce challenge & quick progress but small enough to allow person to succeed Qualitative topographic: higher standards for performance pertain to how responses look, feel like well-formed behavior..ex printing better E’s Quantitative: reinforcement to increase/decrease quantity of behavior by changing frequency/duration/magnitude Shaping problem behaviors -Receiving reinforcement for a behavioral excess and continuing to utilize that behavior Short-cut shaping to speed up progress: -use physical guidance, pictures, modeling, instructions.. Can simplify process: -use percentile schedules (math to determine reinforcement/when behave met criterion) & can process the data on a hand held computer for when behave occurs 2. Prompting: Reminds you or helps you to perform a behavior; most prompts are learned SDs Response prompts: Supplement the discriminative stimulus -Physical guidance (good for bad language, complex task) -Verbal (more elaborate: instructions) -Gestural (physical motions that p previously learned as SDs ex conductor raises hands to signal musicians to play) -Modeling (induces and demonstrates) Stimulus Prompts: Altering the normal antecedent; changing SD (within stimulus prompt) or by adding another stimulus to it (extra-stimulus prompt) -Auditory ex set alarm tone louder to wake up (within) -Pictorial ex. Teacher learn names of students by placing photo beside names (extra) -Environmental ex. Increase studying in class by separating chairs apart (within) Removing Prompts -Fading: slowly remove prompt so that it becomes normal antecedent…happens w decreasing assistance (freq/magn of prompt presentation is gradually reduced) Response Prompt reduce freq: by presenting less often while still using SD until p responds to SD alone mag: alter prom
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