Chapter 3 Cell Signaling and Endocrine Regulation .docx

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 3 Cell Signaling and Endocrine Regulation Cell signaling Signaling cell target cell using a chemical signal which can be Amino Acids hormones electrical signals and neurotransmittersAdjacent cells use aqueous pores gap junctions b most cells not next to one another use indirect cell signalingoIndirect when one cell releases chemicals into extracellular fluidtarget cellAt target cell it binds to receptor activating signal transduction pathways Type Cell Signaling Communication using chemical MessengersoParacrinediffusion of chemical in nearby target celloAutocrinediffusion of checmical onto the signaling cell again itselfoEndocrinelong distances using the circulatory system to send hormones as messengersoNervous systemlong electrical signals and short neurotransmitterSignalsoExocrinesignaling btw systems like insulin being sent to the stomach The Biochemical Basis of Cell signaling General FeaturesGap junctionsoallow for hydrophilic chemical messengersmolecules to pass through the lipid bilayer of cellsoThey are protein complexes that pass to adjacent cells made up of connexin or innexin creating a connexon oMostly involved in ion movement but move cAMP molecules for intracellular signalingoDirect Communication Indirect Signaling SystemsoChemical Release extracellular environment receptor of target celloSystems of communication differ autocrine neural endocrine and exocrine by the type of cell involved in secretion of the messenger oDistance is a factor bc it affects rate of diffusion so the systems have created a way to get by this The neurotransmitters use a region called synapse btw signaling and target cell that allows for short distance communication in the nervous system Long distance occurs in one neuron of the nervous system short distance btw neuronsoPheromone released using exocrine communication into the external enviro oIn nervous system neurons are the only secretory cells oNeurotransmitters can also be secreted into the circulatory systemneurohormone oIn endocrine and exocrine the secretory cells are glands Structure of Messenger determines SignalingoHydrophobic and hydrophilic msngrs use diff mechanisms o6 Main classes of Chemical Messengers Peptides Steroids Amines Lipids Purines and GasesHormones are only consisted of Peptides Steroids AminesAll six Chemical msg can be used in the other 3 communication methodsClasses of MessengersPeptides
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