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Zachariah Campbell

PSYB01 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDEWednesday October 24 2012322 AMChapter 1 IntuitionAuthority 1Instead of using scientific approach people rely intuition and support oIntuition When you rely on ityou accept unquestioningly what your own personal judgment or a single story about ones persons experience tells you Involves finding an explanation for our own behaviors or the behaviors of othersProblemNumerous cognitive and motivational biases affect our perceptionswe draw erroneous conclusions about cause and effect Illusionary correlation occurs when we focus on two events that stand out and occur together Likely to happen when highly motivated to believe in causal relationship oAuthority People believe things when they are told from someone who seems prestigious trustworthy reputable convincing and influentialScientific Approach2Skepticism ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigations 3Empiricism the idea that knowledge is based on observations oFundamental concept of the scientific approach4Data plays a central role key role oshow me dont tell me attitude amongst scientists 5Scientists are not aloneoFindings are not lonely shared with the communityother scientists replicate a research 6Science is adversarial oPeople battle with each other to get closer to the truth oGood scientific ideas are testable oFalsifiability the idea of testing scientific ideas 7Science evidence is peer reviewedoPeer Review before a study is published in a top quality scientific journal other scientists who have the expertise to carefully evaluate the research review it8AdvantagesoProvides an objective set of rules for gathering evaluating and reporting info oOpen system allows ideas to be refuted or supported by others 9Pseudoscience Fake science in which seemingly scientific terms and demonstrations are used to substantiate claims that have no basis in scientific research oEx may claim that a produce or procedure will enhance your memory or relieve depression oCharacteristics of pseudoscienceHypotheses generated cant be testedClaims ignore conflicting evidenceare stated in scientificsounding terminology and ideasare never revised tend to be vague10Facilitated Communicationfacilitator holds he childs hand while the child presses keys to type messages on a keyboard oUsed by therapists working with children with autism oProblem hopes are raised and promises will not be realizedGoals of Research on BehavioroTo describe behaviorDescribe how things are related to one another oTo predict behaviorAllows us to anticipate events oTo determine the causes of behaviorThree types of evidence used to identify the cause of a behaviorTemporal Precedence there needs to be a temporal order of events in which the cause precedes the effect Covariation of Cause and Effect when the cause is present the effect occurs when the cause is not present the effect does not occur Alternative Explanations nothing other than a causal variable could be responsible for the observed effect oTo understand or explain behavior Why do certain things happened Basic Research tries to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behavior Applied Research conducted to address issues in which there are practical problems and potential solutionsUsually guided by theories and finds of basic research investigations Program Evaluation assesses the social reforms and innovations that occur in govt education criminal healthcare and mental institutionsChapter 211Hypotheses a tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it oSometimes stated as informal research questions oAfter hypothesis researcher will conduct an experiment to test the hypothesis12Prediction outcome oIf confirmed hypothesis is supported NOT PROVEN oIf not either reject the hypothesis or conduct further research using different methods to study the hypothesis 13Participants individuals who participate 145 Source of ideasoCommon sense things we believe to be trueoObservation of the world around us observations of personal and social events can provide many ideas for research oTheories consists of systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon 2 main parts of a theoryOrganize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior Generate new knowledge by focusing on thinking so that we notice new aspects of behavior oPast research familiarize with past search and generate new ideas oPractical problems problems that come up easy ideas for research 15Look in libraries and Psychology Journals oOnline PsychINFO Database that is updated weekly Always want to see title author sourcepublication titleabstractDOI Digital Object Identifier helps find full text sources 16SCI Science Citation IndexSSCI Social Science Citation IndexoAccessed through Web of Science oAllow you to search through citation info such as names of author or article title 17Literature Reviews articles that summarize the research in a particular area 18Abstract summary of the research report and typically runes no more than 120 words in length19Intro Section researcher outlines the problem that has been investigated
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