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MDSB05 Study Guide Midterm.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Shiromani NegaMDSB05 MIDTERM REVIEW SHEETSunday October 28 2012113 PMLecture 1 Communications Arm of EmpireA Historical Overview1Main pointInternational communication networks have developed largely in response to and at the same time been shaped by the needs of economic military and political powers2HighlightsTelegraph and the British EmpireInternational news agenciesRadio and wartime propagandaThe Third World and the search for an equitable international communication order TELEGRAPH TIME LINE31865 International Telegraph Union was founded41866 The first commercially successful transatlantic telegraph lines were laid51870 The telegraph lines from Britain to India were connected 61872 Eastern Telegraph Company was formed71872 Australia was linked81902 The first telegraph line across Pacific was completedTELEGRAPHSystem by which a sender sends messages to a receiver in distance by using a coding system that both the sender and receiver understand Info no longer needed to be PHYSICALLY carried it became independent A reconfiguration of time and space due to the electrical telegraph Great Wall of China ex they used smoke and fire to signal Also considered an ancient telegraph way 1837 Samuel Morse invented the electrical telegraphBetween 1850end of 19 century the world got connected with telegraph lines9Purpose of underwater telegraph wiresDecisionmaking power to colonial officials1Shiromani NegaIf a crisis were to occur colonies could immediately tell Britain which would also keep them in power as well as allow them to reactBetter management of timeDont have to wait Reaction time is faster Very crucial in trade and wartime Information became crucialTo the growth of empireIn terms of trading military power and administrative control Threat was a major factorMilitary secrets were spilled across the undersea cables USA made its own cables bc it felt fearful of the monopoly Britain was running 10Significance of communication networks to empiresInformationheart of capitalism Military intelligenceControl of colonies imperialismCommunication Networks and Colonial Expansion11What was the significance of communication networks to empires information at the heart of capitalisminformation about businesses stocks currencies commodities harvests extractive products etc p9 carrier of military intelligence p4 administrative control of colonies p312The telegraph cable networks served and developed as a result of colonial expansion Eastern Telegraph Company Britain and Western Union Telegraph Company USA owned 75 per cent of the worlds cables p 7 News AgencyMedia organizations wholesale media that write and distribute stories and their components such as images and interviews to the news media retail media such as newspapers and broadcastersUntil recently news agencies did not have direct access to individual news consumers their services were mediated subject to the selection and rewriting practices of their media subscribers which repackaged agency news for local audiencesMediate between telegraph companies and local newspaper now that it was possible for news to be gathered and distributed on a large scale 13Rise of News Agencies Havas later AFP established in 1835 FrancebasedWolff established in 1849 GermanybasedReuters established in 1851 BritainbasedFirst three Havas Wolff and Reuters Their power and fortune were dependent on the countries they were serving HavasFrancebasedMost of Africa WolffGermanybasedDominated much of EuropeReutersBritainbased The most powerful because Britain was the worldpower during that time Had most rights in IndoChina2
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