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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 4ReinforcementChapter OutlineDefining ReinforcementPositive and Negative ReinforcementSocial versus Automatic ReinforcementEscape and Avoidance BehaviorsConditioned and Unconditioned ReinforcersFactors Influencing the Effectiveness of ReinforcementImmediacyContingencyMotivating OperationsIndividual DifferencesMagnitude of the ReinforcerSchedules of ReinforcementFixed RatioVariable RatioFixed IntervalVariable IntervalReinforcing Different Dimensions of BehaviorConcurrent Schedules of ReinforcementChapter SummaryKey TermsPractice TestAppendix AAppendix BChapter 4 Quiz 1Chapter 4 Quiz 2Chapter 4 Quiz 3Ideas for Class Activities1 Provide everyday examples of behavior and consequences that illustrate positive reinforcement negative reinforcement or neither and have students identify the examples as positive reinforcement negative reinforcement or neither Have them explain the justification for their answer Alternatively ask students to provide novel everyday examples of positive and negative reinforcement2 Provide everyday examples of different schedules of reinforcement for example piece rate pay as an example of a FR schedule telemarketing calls as an example of a VR schedule checking for the update on scores that are presented on the screen every 10 minutes during football games on television as an example of a FI schedule and checking email for messages as an example of a VI schedule have students identify the schedule of reinforcement in the examples and justify their answers Alternatively have students provide novel everyday examples of each schedule of reinforcement33Answers to Practice Test Questions1Reinforcement is defined as a process in which a behavior is strengthened by the immediate consequence that reliably follows its occurrence2The reinforcer provided to Thorndikes cat was foodThe behavior that resulted in the reinforcer was hitting the lever which opened the doorThe result of the reinforcement was that the cats behavior was strengthenedEach time Thorndike put the hungry cat inside the cage it took less time for the cat to hit the lever that opened the door3To say the a behavior is strengthened means that the behavior is more likely to occur again in the future or that it will increase in frequency duration intensity or speed in the future4A behavior that is strengthened through the process of reinforcement is called an operant behaviorAn operant behavior acts on the environment to produce a consequence and in turn is controlled by or occurs as a result of its immediate consequenceIn Skinners experiments the rats behavior of pressing a lever in the experimental chamber was reinforced with food5See Figure 42 for an example of a graph which shows the effect of reinforcement6Positive reinforcement is when a the occurrence of a behavior b is followed by the addition of a stimulus or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus c which results in the strengthening of the behavior7Negative reinforcement is when a the occurrence of a behavior b is followed by the removal of a stimulus or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus c which results in the strengthening of the behavior8Kevins behavior of giving his girlfriend a compliment was positively reinforced with a kiss and therefore Kevin was more likely to compliment his girlfriend in the future9 Bonnies behavior of reaching over and turning off her alarm clock was negatively reinforced by the removal of the aversive buzzing thus strengthening her behavior of turning off the clock when it buzzes10Positive and negative reinforcement are alike in that both result in the behavior being more likely to occur in the futureThe difference between the two is that in positive reinforcement a response produces a stimulus a positive reinforcer and in negative reinforcement a response removes or prevents the occurrence of a stimulus an aversive stimulus11Negative reinforcement increases or strengthens a behaviorPunishment decreases or weakens a behavior 12In negative reinforcement the stimulus that is removed or avoided following the behavior is called an aversive stimulusThe buzzer on the alarm clock is an aversive stimulus that is removed when you turn off the alarm clock13An unconditioned reinforcer also called a primary reinforcer is a reinforcer that requires no training or conditioning to develop as a reinforcerExamples of unconditioned positive reinforcers are food water and sexual stimulationExamples of unconditioned negative reinforcers are pain cold heat or other discomforting or aversive stimulation 34
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