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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 3Graphing Behavior and Measuring ChangeChapter OutlineComponents of a GraphYaxis and XaxisAxis LabelsAxis NumbersData PointsPhase LinesPhase LabelsGraphing Behavioral DataGraphing Data from Different Recording ProceduresResearch DesignAB DesignABAB DesignMultiple Baseline DesignAcross SubjectsAcross BehaviorsAcross SettingsAlternatingTreatments DesignChanging Criterion DesignChapter SummaryKey TermsPractice TestApplicationsMisapplicationsChapter 3 Quiz 1Chapter 3 Quiz 2Chapter 3 Quiz 3Ideas for Class Activities1 Make up a set of data with observations for a target behavior in baseline and treatment conditions provide the data set to the students and have the students compose a graph of the data You can make the data set simple to reflect an AB design or more complex to reflect an ABAB or multiple baseline design Ask the students what design is illustrated in their graph2 Make up hypothetical research scenarios and ask the students how they would apply the different research designs to the scenarios For example Suppose you have two preschool students who engage in disruptive behavior in the classroom and you want to evaluate an intervention to decrease the disruptive behavior Describe how you would use a multiple baseline across subjects design to evaluate the intervention in this scenario Answers to Practice Test Questions231A graph is used to document whether a behavior has changed when a behavior modification procedure is implementedThe graph makes it easier to compare the levels of the behavior before during and after treatment because the levels are visually presented for comparison2The two variables illustrated in a behavior modification graph are time and behavior3The Y axis or ordinate is the vertical axis of the graph The X axis or abscissa is the horizontal axis of the graphThe two axes come together at the bottom left of the page4The level of behavior is indicated on the Y axisTime is indicated on the X axis5A phase is a period of time in which the same treatment or no treatment is in effect 6Data points are not connected across phase lines so that differences in the level of the behavior in different phases can be seen more easily7Your graph should include 1 the X axis and the Y axis 2 the label for the X axis and Y axis 3 the numbers on the Y axis and the X axis 4 data points 5 phase lines and 6 phase labels8The label for the Y axis of a graph based on interval recording will be the percentage of intervals in which the target behavior occurred9The AB design is the simplest type of design used in behavior modification having just two phases baseline and treatmentAbaseline Btreatment10In the ABAB reversal design baseline and treatment phases are implemented twiceAfter the first treatment phase the researcher removes the treatment and reverses back to baselineThis second baseline is then followed by replication of the treatmentSee Figure 311 for an example of an ABAB reversal design11A multiple baseline design is a research design in which a treatment is evaluated as it is applied sequentially to two or more subjects two or more behaviors or in two or more settingsThere are three types of multiple baseline designs1 In a multiple baseline across subjects there is a baseline and a treatment phase for the same target behavior of two or more different subjects Figure 3122 In a multiple baseline across behaviors there is a baseline and treatment phase for two or more different behaviors of the same subject Figure 3133 In a multiple baseline across settings there is a baseline and treatment phase for two or more settings in which the same behavior of the same subject is measured Figure 31412An extraneous variable is any variable that is not being measured or manipulated as part of treatmentBy withdrawing and then reimplementing treatment it is possible to demonstrate that behavior change coincides with the application of treatmentThis being the case it is reasonable to conclude that behavior change is the result of treatment rather than some extraneous variable13When treatment is implemented at different times or after a different number of baseline data points in a multiple baseline design we say that treatment is staggered over time14In an alternating treatments design ATD the baseline and treatment conditions or 24
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