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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 9ShapingChapter OutlineAn Example of Shaping Teaching a Child to TalkDefining ShapingApplications of ShapingGetting Mrs F to Walk AgainGetting Mrs S to Increase Time Between Bathroom VisitsResearch on ShapingHow to Use Shaping1Define the target behavior2Determine whether shaping is the most appropriate procedure3Identify the starting behavior4Choose the shaping steps5Choose the reinforcer to use in the shaping procedure6Differentially reinforce each successive approximation7Move through the shaping steps at the proper paceShaping of Problem BehaviorsChapter SummaryKey TermsPractice TestApplicationsMisapplicationsChapter 9 Quiz 1Chapter 9 Quiz 2Chapter 9 Quiz 3Ideas for Class Activities1 Engage the class in an activity the shaping game in which one student will attempt to shape the behavior of another student This activity is described in detail at the end of Chapter 9 in the third Application Exercise2 Identify a behavior that a dog or cat owner might find desirable see the first Application Exercise for example Have the students describe how they would use shaping to get the cat or dog to engage in the behaviorThe students should identify the starting behavior the shaping steps and the reinforcer they would sue in the shaping process Answers to Practice Test Questions1Shaping is defined as the differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until the target behavior is exhibited by the individual2Shaping is an appropriate procedure to use when the goal is to develop a target behavior that is the person is not currently exhibitingYou would not use shaping if the individual already engages in the behavior at least occasionally or when other more efficient prompting procedures could be utilized 3The behavioral principles involved in shaping are reinforcement and extinctionTo begin shaping you reinforce a behavior that the person already exhibits that is an approximation of the target behaviorSubsequently closer approximations to the target behavior are reinforced while previous approximations are not reinforced extinction894 A successive approximation is a behavior that is closer in form than the previous approximation to the target behavior5The following example illustrates differential reinforcement of a successive approximation Lara is trying to teach her daughter Kassidy to say mommyRight now Kassidy can only make an m soundLara starts by providing attention defined as smiling kissing and saying Good job Kassidy as a reinforcer for making the m sound After Kassidy began making the m sound frequently Lara no longer provides attention for the behavior extinctionKassidy then begins making new different noisesWhen Kassidy make the sound ma a closer approximation to mommy Lara provides attentionThis pattern of reinforcing closer approximations to the target behavior while not reinforcing previous approximations extinction continues until Kassidy exhibits the target behavior of saying mommy6The following examples illustrate shaping 1 A door knob rusts over time and you must put more and more effort into turning it to open the door thereby shaping the intensity of the behavior2 You say come and your dog comes runningThe dog ignores the command and only comes when you repeat the commandThen the dog ignores 2 commands and only comes after you issue 3 commands and raise your voice Eventually the dog comes only after yelling five times7 The following example illustrates how a problem behavior may be developed through shapingJoey is a 25 year old male with severe intellectual disability who works in a sheltered workshop for individuals with developmental disabilities At times Joey starts to sing loudly during working times at which point staff immediately goes over to Joey and explains why he cant sing during workA psychologist was consulted to address Joeys problem behaviorUpon identifying that the problem behavior was being maintained by staff attention the psychologist recommended that the staff ignore Joeys singingWhen the staff ignored Joeys singing an extinction burst occurred in which Joey escalated to screaming loudly and running around the roomAt that point the staff approached Joey and tried to calm him down by talking to him and patting him on the back attentionAs a result the staff had shaped a more severe problem behavior8The starting behavior or first approximation must be a behavior that the person already engages in at least occasionallyIn addition the starting behavior must have some relevance to the target behavior9It might be useful to use conditioned reinforcers when conducting a shaping procedure because conditioned reinforcers can typically be distributed quickly and easily as with the conditioned reinforcer of clicking in the dolphin exampleIn addition using a conditioned reinforcer can avoid satiation on an unconditioned reinforcer which for the dolphins was fish10In language development in young children the shaping process starts when the parents reinforce babblingThe random word sounds in babbling are approximations to actual wordsEach time the child makes a sound that is a closer approximation to a word the child gets more attention reinforcement from the parent and the child gets less attention for the previous approximation Discrimination training occurs when the parents reinforce Dspecific words in the presence of specific Ss For example saying ball in the presence of a ball11Shaping can be used to establish a new form new topography of a behavior or it may be used to produce a different frequency duration latency or intensity of an already existing behavior Shaping a new dimension of a behavior occurs when shaping is used to get a person to gradually engage in more and more exercise until he reaches 40 minutes per day when he is currently exercising only 10 minutes a day12Novel behaviors typically begin to occur as part of an extinction burstA novel behavior that is a closer approximation to the target behavior is reinforcedAs a result the behavior that is a closer approximation will be exhibited more frequently the previous behavior less frequentlyFor example whenever 6 year old Joshua cries his babysitter Linda immediately provides attention goes over to him and asks him whats wrong hugs him etc One day Linda decided that Joshua was too old for such behavior and decided to ignore his cryingWhen she did so Joshua threw a tantrum dropped to the floor and started screamingAt that point Linda provided attention to Joshua reinforcer thereby shaping a more problematic behavior tantrumming90
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