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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 1Introduction to Behavior ModificationChapter OutlineDefining Human BehaviorExamples of BehaviorDefining Behavior ModificationCharacteristics of Behavior ModificationHistorical Roots of Behavior ModificationMajor FiguresEarly Behavior Modification ResearchersMajor Publications and EventsAreas of ApplicationDevelopmental DisabilitiesMental IllnessEducation and Special EducationRehabilitationCommunity PsychologyClinical PsychologyBusiness Industry and Human ServicesSelfmanagementChild ManagementPreventionSports PsychologyHealthRelated BehaviorsGerontologyThe Structure of This TextbookMeasurement of Behavior and Behavior ChangeBasic Principles of BehaviorProcedures to Establish New BehaviorProcedures to Increase Desirable Behavior and Decrease Undesirable BehaviorOther Behavior Change ProceduresChapter SummaryKey TermsPractice TestChapter 1 Quiz 1Chapter 1 Quiz 2Chapter 1 Quiz 3Ideas for Class Activities1 Ask students to share what they think behavior modification is all about before reviewing the characteristics of behavior modification in the chapter2 Discuss a few research articles in which behavior modification procedures were used to address socially significant problems to illustrate some of the areas of application of behavior modification1Answers to Practice Test Questions1Behavior is what people do and sayBehavior involves an individuals actions2An example of a description of behavior is Jennifer screamed at her mother ran upstairs and slammed the door to her roomA label that may be applied to this behavior is anger3The four physical dimensions of behavior that can be observed and recorded are 1 frequency the number of times a behavior occurs 2 durationthe time from when an instance of the behavior starts until it stops 3 intensitythe physical force involved in the behavior and latencythe time from some stimulus to the onset of the behavior4Turning a light switch to the off position has an effect on the physical environment in that it causes the light to go offAsking a question has an effect on the social environment when another individual provides an answer to the question5To say that behavior is lawful is to say that its occurrence is systematically influenced by environmental eventsA functional relationship refers to how our behavior is influenced by or occurs as a function of environmental events6An overt behavior is an action of an individual that can be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one engaging in the behaviorAn example of an overt behavior is talkingCovert behaviors on the other hand are not observable to othersFor example thinking is a covert behaviorThis textbook will focus on behavior modification with overt behaviors7The six characteristics of behavior are as follows Behavior is what people do and say Behaviors have one or more dimensions Behaviors can be observed described and recorded Behaviors have an impact on the environment Behavior is lawful Behaviors may be overt or covert8Behavior modification is the application of basic principles originally derived from experimental research with laboratory animals 9Human behavior is controlled by events in the immediate environmentHowever a label might be mistakenly identified as a cause of behaviorA label is derived from observable patterns of behaviorFor example to say that an autistic child engages in problem behaviors because he is autistic is incorrectRather the label of autism is made based on a pattern of behaviors observed in the childThe label cannot be the cause of the behavior because the label does not exist as a physical entity or event10By describing behavior modification procedures precisely researchers and other professionals make it more likely that the procedures will be used correctly each time to produce the desired changes in behavior11While behavior modification procedures are developed by professionals or paraprofessionals trained in behavior modification the procedures are often implemented by people such as teachers parents job supervisors or others2
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