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Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 6PunishmentChapter OutlineDefining PunishmentA Common Misconception About PunishmentPositive and Negative PunishmentUnconditioned and Conditioned PunishersContrasting Reinforcement and PunishmentFactors Influencing the Effectiveness of PunishmentImmediacyContingencyMotivating OperationsIndividual Differences and Magnitude of the PunisherProblems with PunishmentEmotional Reactions to PunishmentEscape and AvoidanceNegative Reinforcement for the Use of PunishmentPunishment and ModelingEthical IssuesChapter SummaryKey TermsPractice TestAppendix AChapter 6 Quiz 1Chapter 6 Quiz 2Chapter 6 Quiz 3Ideas for Class Activities1 Provide students with interesting everyday examples of behavior and consequences In the examples vary whether the consequence involves the addition or removal of a stimulus and vary whether the future outcome of the behavior is a decrease of increase in the behavior Ask students to identify each example as positive or negative punishment or positive or negative reinforcement and explain why2 Discuss the distinction between punishment as a behavior modification principle and punishment as the word is commonly used in society Start by asking students to describe what the term punishment has always meant to them Discuss how punishment is viewed as hurting someone as in a punishing tackle in a football game or as getting back at someone for a wrong Discuss the notion that punishment in behavior modification does not have to involve pain or retribution Discuss how governments and other authorities often mistakenly think they are using punishment when in fact the consequences may not decrease the behavior of interest and thus may not function as punishment at all or only partially function as punishment eg speeding ticketsAnswers to Practice Test Questions1Punishment is defined as follows When a particular behavior occurs a consequence immediately follows the behavior and as a result the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future the behavior is weakened2Many people consider punishment to be quite negative for example something you do to a person who has committed a crime or other inappropriate behaviorIt is thought to involve retribution or painful consequences delivered to the personIn behavior modification punishment is a technical term with a specific meaningYou 55cannot define punishment by whether the consequence would seem to be unfavorable or aversiveYou can determine that a particular consequence is punishing only by whether the behavior decreases in the future3 a An example of punishment might be when you show up late for a class and receive a reprimand from the instructorAs a result you are less likely to show up late for class againb This is positive punishment because the reprimand was delivered following the behavior and the behavior was weakenedc The reprimand is a conditioned punisherIt became a punisher through prior learning4To say that the behavior modification definition of punishment is a functional definition means that punishment is defined by the effect on behaviorPunishment only occurs when the behavior is weakened as a result of the response contingent consequence of the behavior5In positive punishment the occurrence of a behavior is followed by the presentation of a stimulus and as a result the behavior is less likely to occur in the futureFor example Donny pulled Susies hair and Susie smacked DonnyAs a result Donny did not pull Susies hair in the futureOther names for positive punishment include punishment by application punishment by contingent presentation of a stimulus punishment by presentation of an aversive stimulus and response contingent presentation of a punisher6In negative punishment the occurrence of a behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus and as a result the behavior is less likely to occur in the futureFor example when Taren threw her favorite toy across the room her mother took the toy and locked it upAs a result Taren is less likely to throw her toys in the futureOther names for negative punishment include punishment by withdrawal punishment by loss of reinforcers the penalty contingency and response contingent removal of a positive reinforcer7a Unconditioned punishers are stimuli that require no prior training or experience to serve as punishers they are naturally aversiveb We have developed the capacity for our behavior to be punished by naturally aversive events through the process of evolutionWithout this capacity we would be more likely to engage in dangerous behaviors that could result in injury or deathc Some examples of unconditioned punishers are extreme heat or cold extreme levels of auditory or visual stimulation or any painful stimulus eg electric shock a sharp object or a forceful blow8a A conditioned punisher is a stimulus or event that will function as a punisher only after being paired with an unconditioned punisher or an existing conditioned punisherb A neutral stimulus or event may become a conditioned punisher if it is paired with an established punisher c See the chapter for other examples of conditioned punishers9 A painful stimulus may be involved in both positive punishment and negative reinforcement in the following way When a behavior results in the presentation of a painful stimulus positive punishment that behavior is less likely to occur in the futureHowever any behavior that results in the removal of the painful stimulus negative reinforcement is strengthenedFor example when Marlene attempted to remove a tray of cookies from the oven without an oven mitt her hand was burned by the intense heat of the tray positive punishmentAs a result Marlene was less likely to reach into the oven without a mitt in the futureBy putting on an oven mitt Marlene avoids the intense heat negative reinforcement therefore she was more likely to wear an oven mitt when reaching into the oven10A reinforcing stimulus may be involved in both negative punishment and positive reinforcement in the following way If a reinforcing stimulus is removed following a behavior the behavior will decrease in the future negative punishment but if a reinforcing stimulus is presented following a behavior the behavior will increase in the future positive reinforcementFor example Alan gets a D in physics because he has been going out on school nights in lieu of studyingAlans parents take away his car keys as a result making Alan less likely to go out and skip studying to go out on school nights negative punishmentAlan then begins to study two hours per night and brings his grade up to an A for the next termHis parents then return his car keys making Alan more likely to study on school nights positive reinforcement 11For punishment to be most effective the consequence must follow the behavior immediatelyAs the delay between the behavior and the consequence is increased the effectiveness of the consequence as a punisher is 56
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