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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 8Respondent ConditioningChapter OutlineExamples of Respondent ConditioningDefining Respondent ConditioningTiming of the Neutral Stimulus and the USTrace ConditioningDelay ConditioningSimultaneous ConditioningBackward ConditioningHigherOrder ConditioningConditioned Emotional ResponsesExtinction of Conditioned ResponsesSpontaneous RecoveryDiscrimination and Generalization of Respondent BehaviorFactors that Influence Respondent ConditioningThe Nature of the US and the CSThe Temporal Relationship between the CS and the USContingency between the CS and the USThe Number of PairingsPrevious Exposure to the CSDistinguishing Between Operant and Respondent ConditioningRespondent Conditioning and Behavior ModificationChapter SummaryPractice TestChapter 8 Quiz 1Chapter 8 Quiz 2Chapter 8 Quiz 3Ideas for Class Activities1 You can conduct an exercise in class in which you present an unconditioned stimulus to generate an unconditioned response and then pair a neutral stimulus with the US to demonstrate respondent conditioning Borrow a starters pistol from your schools track or cross country coach This is a pistol that shoots blanks to start races It does not fire a bullet but makes a very loud noise when fired Show the pistol to the class and explain that it is harmless Also tell the students that you will fire the pistol some time in class as part of a demonstration if anyone in class objects do not proceed with the demonstrationAt some point without warning raise the pistol suddenly and fire it while it is pointed up in the air Have the students describe the bodily responses they are experiencing as a result of being startled by the loud noise This is an unconditioned reflex Loud noise elicits autonomic arousal as a startle response A few minutes later fire the pistol again without warning Have the class note their bodily response The third time raise the pistol as if to fire it but do not fire it Have the students describe their bodily responses to the raised pistol Many will report a startle response or autonomic arousal The raised gun is neutral stimulus that was paired with the loud noise and should now elicit the same type of autonomic arousal in the students 772 Describe a variety of examples of respondent conditioning and have the students identify the US UR CS and CR in the examples Examples may involve simple conditioned responses such as an eye blink or more clinically relevant responses that involve anger anxiety or sexual arousalAnswers to Practice Test Questions1USunconditioned stimulus URunconditioned response CSconditioned stimulus CRconditioned response2An unconditioned stimulus US is one which elicits a response with no prior learning or conditioningFor example bright light in the eye painful stimulation to the body and a loud noise are examples of unconditioned stimuli3An unconditioned response UR is one which is elicited by an antecedent stimulus a US even though no conditioning has taken placeIt is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is presentFor example an eye blink in response to bright light rapid withdrawal from a painful stimulus and a startle reflex to a loud noise are examples of unconditioned responses4A neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus CS by being paired with an unconditioned stimulus the neutral stimulus and US are presented togetherThis process is called respondent conditioning5The outcome of respondent conditioning is that the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus CS and elicits a conditioned response CR similar to the unconditioned response UR 6In delay conditioning the NS is presented and the US is then presented before the termination of the NS Trace conditioning is similar to delay conditioning the NS precedes the US except that the presentation of the US does not overlap with the presentation of the NSSimultaneous conditioning involves the simultaneous presentation of the NS and the USBackward conditioning occurs when the US is presented prior to the NS7In most cases of respondent conditioning trace and delay conditioning in which the CS is presented first are most effectiveBackward conditioning is least likely to result in respondent conditioning8Higher order conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with an already established CS and the neutral stimulus becomes a CSFor example a light precedes an electric shock delivered to a person which elicits a UR of autonomic arousalLater the light will be a CS and elicit autonomic arousal as a CRNow when a tone neutral stimulus is paired with the light the tone becomes a CS elicits the same CR of autonomic arousal9By pairing a neutral stimulus with one which elicits an emotional response such as autonomic arousal the neutral stimulus will come to elicit the emotional response which thereby becomes a conditioned emotional response CERExamples are positive CERs are happiness love and excitementExamples of negative CERs are fear anger disgust and prejudice10Respondent extinction involves the repeated presentation of the CS without presenting the US until the CS no longer elicited a CRFor example if Pavlov continued to present the sound of the metronome CS but never paired the metronome with the delivery of meat powder US the dog would begin to salivate less and less to the sound of the metronome until the dog quit salivating altogether when it heard the metronome11When the CS elicits the CR sometime later after extinction had taken place spontaneous recovery has occurredFor example when Pavlov presented the sound of the metronome repeatedly without putting meat powder in the dogs mouth eventually the dog quit salivating to the sound of the metronomeHowever when Pavlov presented the metronome sometime later the dog again salivated although to a lesser extent than before extinction12Taste aversion differs from other types of respondent conditioning in that the UR nausea and vomiting elicited by the US tainted food may occur many minutes after the occurrence of the NS the taste of the food 78
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