PSYB45 Chapter 1-10 Detailed Chapter notes

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 1Intro To Behavior ModificationDefining Human BehaviorHuman behavior is subject matter of behavior modificationCharacteristicso Behavior what people do and say Described with action verbs Not a static characteristic ofperson Identifies what person says or doeso Behaviors have one or more dimensionso Frequency number of times behavior occurso Duration time from when instance of behavior starts until it stopso IntensityBehaviors can be observed described and recordedOccurrence can be observedBehaviors have impact on environmentOccurrencehas some effect on environment in which it occursBehavior is lawfulo Occurrence is systematically influenced by environmental eventso Basic behavioral principles describe functional relationships between behavior and environmental eventso Principles describe how behavior is influenced by or occurs as function of environmental eventsBehaviors may be overt or coverto Most often behavior modification procedures are used to understand and change overt behaviorso Overt behavior action that can be observed and recorded by person other than one engaging in behavioro Covert behavior private events Not observable to others thinkingDefining Behavior ModificationBehavior Modification field of psychology concerned with analyzing and modifying human behavioro Analyzing identifying functional relationship between environmental events and particularbehaviour to understand reasons for behavior or to determine why person behaved as they dido Modifying developing and implementing procedures to help people change their behaviorInvolves altering environmental events so as to influence behavior Behavior modification procedures are developed by professionals and used to change socially significant behaviors with goal of improving some aspect of persons lifeCharacteristics of Behavior ModificationFocus on Behavioro Behavior modification procedures are designed to change behavior not personal characteristic ortraito Emphasizes labeling1o Behavioral excesses and deficits are targets for change with behavior modification procedureso Target behavior behavior to be modeledo Behavioral excess undesirable target behavior person wants to decrease in frequency duration or intensity smokingo Behavioral deficit desirable target behavior person wants incease in to rfrequency duration orintensity exercise and studying Procedures based on behavioral principleso Behavior mod is application of basic principles originally derived from experimental research withlab animalso Experimental analysis of behavior scientific study of behavior or behavior analysiso Applied behavior analysis scientific study of human behavior is called experimental analysis of human behavioro Behavior mod procedures are based on research in applied behavior analysis that has beenconducted for more than 40 yearsEmphasis on current environmental eventso Behavior mod involves assessing and modifying current environmental events that arefunctionally related to behavioro Human behavior is controlled by events in immediate environment and goal of behavior mod is toidentify those eventso Controlling variables once identified altered to modify behavioro Successful behavior mod procedures alter functional relationships between behavior and controlling variables in environment to produce a desired change in behavioro Sometimes labels mistakenly identified as causes of behavioro Cause of behavior must be found in environmentPrecise description of behavior mod procedureso Behavior mod procedures involve specific changes in environmental events that are functionallyrelated to behavioro To be effective specific changes in environmental events must occur each timeo By describing procedures precisely researchers and other professionals make it more likely that procedures will be used correctly each timeTreatment implemented by people in everyday lifeo Behavior mod procedures are developed by professionals or paraprofessionals trained in behaviormodo Behavior mod procedures often are implemented by people such as teachers parents jobsupervisors or others to help people change behaviorMeasurement of behavior changeo One of the hallmarks is emphasis on measuring behavior before and after 2intervention todocument behavior change resulting from behavior mod procedureso Ongoingassessment of behavior is done well beyond point of intervention to determine whetherbehavior change is maintained in long run Deemphasison past events as causes of behavioro Behavior mod places emphasis on recent environmental events as causes of behavioro Knowledge of past also provides useful info about environmental events related to current behaviorr o Knowledge of current contolling variables is most relevantto developing effective behavior modinterventions because those variables unlike past events can still changeRejection of hypothetical underlying causes of behavioro Behavior mod rejects hypothetical explanations of behavioro Skinner has called explanations explanatory fictions because they can never be proved or disproved and thus unscientificHistorical Roots of Behavior ModificationMajor FiguresIvan Pavlovo Conducted experiments that uncovered basic processes of respondent conditioningo Demonstratedthat a reflex salivation in response to food could be conditioned to neutral stimuluso Conditioned reflexEdward Thorndikeo Major contribution was description of law of effecto Law of effect behavior that produces favourable effect on environment is more likely to be repeated in the futureo Put a cat in cage and set food outside cage where it was visible To open door cat had to hit leverShowed that cat learned to hit lever and open cage door Each time it was put into cage cat hit lever more quickly because behavior produced favourable effect on environmentJohn Watsono Psychology as the Behaviorist Views Ito Watson asserted that observable behavior was proper subject matter of psychology and that all behavior was controlled by environmental eventso Descibed stimulus response psychologyin which envionmental events elicited rrresponseso Started movement called behaviorismBF Skinnero Expanded field of behaviorismo Explained distinction between respondent conditioning and operant conditioningo Research elaborated basic principles of operant behavioro Lab research demonstrated basic behavioral principleso Wrote number of books in which he applied principles of behavior analysis to human behavior3
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